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Entry version 30 (07 Apr 2021)
Sequence version 1 (18 Sep 2013)
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Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase gloG



Glarea lozoyensis (strain ATCC 20868 / MF5171)
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of pneumocandins, lipohexapeptides of the echinocandin family that prevent fungal cell wall formation by non-competitive inhibition of beta-1,3-glucan synthase (PubMed:27705900).

The 10,12-dimethylmyristoyl side chain is synthesized by the reducing polyketide synthase gloL/GLPKS4 (PubMed:27494047).

The thioesterase gloN/GLHYD exclusively interacts with gloL/GLPKS4 to maintain turnover of the polyketide side chain (PubMed:27494047).

The 10R,12S-dimethylmyristic acid is then transferred to the first thiolation domain of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gloA/GLNRPS4 by the acyl-AMP ligase gloD/GLligase, followed by its acylation to L-ornithine to trigger elongation of the cyclic hexapeptide (PubMed:27494047).

L-ornithine, 4R-hydroxyl-L-proline (generated from L-proline by the dioxygenase gloF/GLOXY2), 3S-hydroxyl-L-homotyrosine (generated by gloG/GLHtyB, gloH/GLHtyA, gloI/GLHtyC, gloJ/GLHtyD and hydroxylated at C-3 by the dioxygenase gloM/GLOXY1), 3R-hydroxyl-L-glutamine (generated from L-glutamine probably by the dioxygenase gloE/GLOXY3) and 3S-hydroxyl-L-proline (generated from L-proline by the dioxygenase gloF/GLOXY2 to yield pneumocandin B0), or 3S-hydroxyl-4S-methyl-L-proline (generated from L-leucine by the dioxygenase gloC/GLOXY4 to yield pneumocandin A0) are sequentially added to the growing chain (PubMed:25270390, PubMed:25879325, PubMed:25527531).

The last C domain of gloA/GLNRPS4 is proposed to be responsible for cyclization by condensation to form the peptide bond between L-ornithine and 3S-hydroxyl-4S-methyl-L-proline (for pneumocandin A0) or 3S-hydroxyl-L-proline (for pneumocandin B0). Finally, the subsequent C-4 hydroxylation of 3S-hydroxyl-L-homotyrosine and L-ornithine dihydroxylation at C-4 and C-5 are performed by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases gloP/GLP450-1 and gloO/GLP450-2, respectively (PubMed:25879325).

1 Publication5 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

pyridoxal 5'-phosphateUniRule annotation

<p>This subsection of the <a href="">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: Mycotoxin biosynthesis

This protein is involved in Mycotoxin biosynthesis.1 Publication
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in Mycotoxin biosynthesis.


Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei91Pyridoxal phosphateBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei195Proton acceptorBy similarity1
Binding sitei231Pyridoxal phosphateBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionAminotransferase, Transferase
Biological processAmino-acid biosynthesis, Branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis
LigandPyridoxal phosphate

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase gloGBy similarity (EC: similarity)
Alternative name(s):
L-homotyrosine biosynthesis sub-cluster protein gloG1 Publication
Pneumocandin biosynthesis cluster protein G1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:gloG1 Publication
Synonyms:GLHtyB1 Publication
ORF Names:GLAREA_10040
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiGlarea lozoyensis (strain ATCC 20868 / MF5171)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri1116229 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaPezizomycotinaLeotiomycetesHelotialesHelotiaceaeGlarea
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000016922 <p>A UniProt <a href="">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unassembled WGS sequence

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the use of a specific protein in the biotechnological industry.<p><a href='/help/biotechnological_use' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Biotechnological usei

Pneumocandin B0 is the starting molecule for the first semisynthetic echinocandin antifungal drug, caspofungin acetate (PubMed:25527531). Pneumocandin B0 is a minor fermentation product, and its industrial production was achieved by a combination of extensive mutation and medium optimization (PubMed:25527531). Inactivation of three of gloP/GLP450-1, gloO/GLP450-2, and gloM/GLOXY1 generates 13 different pneumocandin analogs that lack one, two, three, or four hydroxyl groups on 4R,5R-dihydroxy-ornithine and 3S,4S-dihydroxy-homotyrosine of the parent hexapeptide (PubMed:25879325). All of these cyclic lipopeptides show potent antifungal activities, and two new metabolites pneumocandins F and G are more potent in vitro against Candida species and Aspergillus fumigatus than the principal fermentation products, pneumocandins A0 and B0 (PubMed:25879325). Moreover, feeding alternative side chain precursors yields acrophiarin and 4 additional pneumocandin congeners with straight C14, C15, and C16 side chains. One of those compounds, pneumocandin I, has elevated antifungal activity and similar hemolytic activity compared to pneumocandin B0, the starting molecule for caspofungin, demonstrating the potential for using gloD/GLligase for future engineering of new echinocandin analogs (PubMed:27494047).3 Publications

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004444861 – 358Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase gloGAdd BLAST358

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="">lipids</a>, <a href="">glycans</a> and <a href="">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei195N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysineBy similarity1

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks


<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models


Database of comparative protein structure models


<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

KOG0975, Eukaryota

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms


Database of Orthologous Groups


Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

Gene3Di, 1 hit
3.30.470.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

View protein in InterPro
IPR001544, Aminotrans_IV
IPR036038, Aminotransferase-like
IPR005786, B_amino_transII
IPR043132, BCAT-like_C
IPR043131, BCAT-like_N

Pfam protein domain database

View protein in Pfam
PF01063, Aminotran_4, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

PIRSF006468, BCAT1, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

SSF56752, SSF56752, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="">length</a> and <a href="">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

S3DQP8-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
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Mass (Da):38,895
Last modified:September 18, 2013 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i61E90B6D840C4756

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database


GenBank nucleotide sequence database


DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

Links Updated
KE145356 Genomic DNA Translation: EPE34346.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

XP_008078281.1, XM_008080090.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl fungal genome annotation project

EPE34346; EPE34346; GLAREA_10040

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes


KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes


<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
KE145356 Genomic DNA Translation: EPE34346.1
RefSeqiXP_008078281.1, XM_008080090.1

3D structure databases


Protein-protein interaction databases


Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiEPE34346; EPE34346; GLAREA_10040

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0975, Eukaryota

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.20.10.10, 1 hit
3.30.470.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001544, Aminotrans_IV
IPR036038, Aminotransferase-like
IPR005786, B_amino_transII
IPR043132, BCAT-like_C
IPR043131, BCAT-like_N
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01063, Aminotran_4, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF006468, BCAT1, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF56752, SSF56752, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations


<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGLOG_GLAL2
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: S3DQP8
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 20, 2018
Last sequence update: September 18, 2013
Last modified: April 7, 2021
This is version 30 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome


  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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