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Entry version 96 (05 Jun 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 May 1999)
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Protein

Retinoid isomerohydrolase

Gene

RPE65

Organism
Gallus gallus (Chicken)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Critical isomerohydrolase in the retinoid cycle involved in regeneration of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of rod and cone opsins. Catalyzes the cleavage and isomerization of all-trans-retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis-retinol which is further oxidized by 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase to 11-cis-retinal for use as visual chromophore (PubMed:19490105). Essential for the production of 11-cis retinal for both rod and cone photoreceptors (By similarity). Also capable of catalyzing the isomerization of lutein to meso-zeaxanthin an eye-specific carotenoid (PubMed:28874556). The soluble form binds vitamin A (all-trans-retinol), making it available for LRAT processing to all-trans-retinyl ester. The membrane form, palmitoylated by LRAT, binds all-trans-retinyl esters, making them available for IMH (isomerohydrolase) processing to all-cis-retinol. The soluble form is regenerated by transferring its palmitoyl groups onto 11-cis-retinol, a reaction catalyzed by LRAT (By similarity).By similarity2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Fe2+By similarityNote: Binds 1 Fe2+ ion per subunit.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=3.7 µM for all-trans-retinyl palmitate1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the ‘Description’ field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi180Iron; catalyticBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi241Iron; catalyticBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi313Iron; catalyticBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi527Iron; catalyticBy similarity1

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionHydrolase, Isomerase
    Biological processSensory transduction, Vision
    LigandIron, Metal-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

    More...
    Reactomei
    R-GGA-2453902 The canonical retinoid cycle in rods (twilight vision)

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Retinoid isomerohydrolase (EC:3.1.1.642 Publications)
    Alternative name(s):
    All-trans-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase
    Lutein isomerase
    Meso-zeaxanthin isomerase1 Publication (EC:5.3.3.221 Publication)
    Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein
    Retinol isomerase
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:RPE65
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiGallus gallus (Chicken)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9031 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiArchelosauriaArchosauriaDinosauriaSaurischiaTheropodaCoelurosauriaAvesNeognathaeGalloanseraeGalliformesPhasianidaePhasianinaeGallus
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
    • UP000000539 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unplaced

    <p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

    Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cell membrane, Cytoplasm, Endoplasmic reticulum, Membrane, Microsome

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001439461 – 533Retinoid isomerohydrolaseAdd BLAST533

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position(s) and the type of covalently attached lipid group(s).<p><a href='/help/lipid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Lipidationi112S-palmitoyl cysteine; in membrane formBy similarity1
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei117PhosphoserineBy similarity1
    Lipidationi231S-palmitoyl cysteine; in membrane formBy similarity1
    Lipidationi329S-palmitoyl cysteine; in membrane formBy similarity1

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

    Palmitoylation by LRAT regulates ligand binding specificity; the palmitoylated form (membrane form) specifically binds all-trans-retinyl-palmitate, while the soluble unpalmitoylated form binds all-trans-retinol (vitamin A).By similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Lipoprotein, Palmitate, Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

    More...
    PaxDbi
    Q9YGX2

    PRoteomics IDEntifications database

    More...
    PRIDEi
    Q9YGX2

    <p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

    Retinal pigment epithelium specific.

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of the gene product at various stages of a cell, tissue or organism development. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at the protein level’.<p><a href='/help/developmental_stage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Developmental stagei

    Highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/ choroid of the E21 embryos (at protein level).1 Publication

    Gene expression databases

    Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

    More...
    Bgeei
    ENSGALG00000011259 Expressed in 5 organ(s), highest expression level in testis

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRING: functional protein association networks

    More...
    STRINGi
    9031.ENSGALP00000018351

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    3D structure databases

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    Q9YGX2

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the carotenoid oxygenase family.Curated

    Phylogenomic databases

    evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

    More...
    eggNOGi
    KOG1285 Eukaryota
    COG3670 LUCA

    The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

    More...
    HOGENOMi
    HOG000232156

    InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

    More...
    InParanoidi
    Q9YGX2

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K11158

    Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

    More...
    OMAi
    ITEFGTF

    Database of Orthologous Groups

    More...
    OrthoDBi
    895046at2759

    Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

    More...
    PhylomeDBi
    Q9YGX2

    Family and domain databases

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR004294 Carotenoid_Oase

    The PANTHER Classification System

    More...
    PANTHERi
    PTHR10543 PTHR10543, 1 hit

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF03055 RPE65, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q9YGX2-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MYSQVEHPAG GYKKLFETVE ELSSPVTAHV TGRIPTWLRG SLLRCGPGLF
    60 70 80 90 100
    EVGAEPFYHL FDGQALLHKF DFKEGHVTYH RRFVRTDAYV RAMTEKRIVI
    110 120 130 140 150
    TEFGTYAYPD PCKNIFSRFF SYFKGVEVTD NALVNVYPVG EDYYACTETN
    160 170 180 190 200
    FITKINPDTL ETIKQVDLCK YVSVNGATAH PHVENDGTVY NIGNCFGKNF
    210 220 230 240 250
    SLAYNIIRIP PLQADKEDPM NKSEVVVQFP CSDRFKPSYV HSFGLTPNYI
    260 270 280 290 300
    VFVETPVKIN LLKFLSSWSL WGANYMDCFE SNETMGVWLH VAEKKKGRLL
    310 320 330 340 350
    NIKYRTSAFN LFHHINTFED NGFLIVDLCT WKGFEFVYNY LYLANLRANW
    360 370 380 390 400
    DEVKKQAEKA PQPEARRYVL PLRIDKADTG KNLVTLPYTT ATATLRSDET
    410 420 430 440 450
    VWLEPEVIFS GPRHAFEFPQ INYKKYGGKP YTYTYGLGLN HFVPDRLCKL
    460 470 480 490 500
    NVKTKETWVW QEPDSYPSEP IFVSHPDALE EDDGVVLSIV ISPGSGPKPA
    510 520 530
    YLLILNAKDM SEVARAEVEV NIPVTFHGLF KRA
    Length:533
    Mass (Da):60,930
    Last modified:May 1, 1999 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i67ECA3B5993084A0
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AB017594 mRNA Translation: BAA75667.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences

    More...
    RefSeqi
    NP_990215.1, NM_204884.1

    Genome annotation databases

    Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    More...
    GeneIDi
    395700

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    gga:395700

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AB017594 mRNA Translation: BAA75667.1
    RefSeqiNP_990215.1, NM_204884.1

    3D structure databases

    SMRiQ9YGX2
    ModBaseiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRINGi9031.ENSGALP00000018351

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ9YGX2
    PRIDEiQ9YGX2

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    GeneIDi395700
    KEGGigga:395700

    Organism-specific databases

    Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

    More...
    CTDi
    6121

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG1285 Eukaryota
    COG3670 LUCA
    HOGENOMiHOG000232156
    InParanoidiQ9YGX2
    KOiK11158
    OMAiITEFGTF
    OrthoDBi895046at2759
    PhylomeDBiQ9YGX2

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    ReactomeiR-GGA-2453902 The canonical retinoid cycle in rods (twilight vision)

    Miscellaneous databases

    Protein Ontology

    More...
    PROi
    PR:Q9YGX2

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiENSGALG00000011259 Expressed in 5 organ(s), highest expression level in testis

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR004294 Carotenoid_Oase
    PANTHERiPTHR10543 PTHR10543, 1 hit
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF03055 RPE65, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiRPE65_CHICK
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9YGX2
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 10, 2003
    Last sequence update: May 1, 1999
    Last modified: June 5, 2019
    This is version 96 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
    UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
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