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Entry version 81 (02 Jun 2021)
Sequence version 1 (01 Nov 1999)
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Protein

Lovastatin nonaketide synthase, enoyl reductase component lovC

Gene

lovC

Organism
Aspergillus terreus
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Trans-enoyl reductase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of lovastatin (also known as mevinolin, mevacor or monacolin K), a hypolipidemic inhibitor of (3S)-hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR) (PubMed:10334994, PubMed:12929390, PubMed:21495633).

The first step in the biosynthesis of lovastatin is the production of dihydromonacolin L acid by the lovastatin nonaketide synthase lovB and the trans-acting enoyl reductase lovC via condensation of one acetyl-CoA unit and 8 malonyl-CoA units (PubMed:10334994, PubMed:10381407, PubMed:19900898, PubMed:22733743).

Dihydromonacolin L acid is released from lovB by the thioesterase lovG (PubMed:23653178).

Next, dihydromonacolin L acid is oxidized by the dihydromonacolin L monooxygenase lovA twice to form monacolin J acid (PubMed:12929390, PubMed:21495633).

The 2-methylbutyrate moiety of lovastatin is synthesized by the lovastatin diketide synthase lovF via condensation of one acetyl-CoA unit and one malonyl-CoA unit (PubMed:19530726, PubMed:21069965).

Finally, the covalent attachment of this moiety to monacolin J acid is catalyzed by the transesterase lovD to yield lovastatin (PubMed:10334994, PubMed:17113998, PubMed:18988191, PubMed:19875080, PubMed:24727900).

LovD has broad substrate specificity and can also convert monacolin J to simvastatin using alpha-dimethylbutanoyl-S-methyl-3-mercaptopropionate (DMB-S-MMP) as the thioester acyl donor, and can also catalyze the reverse reaction and function as hydrolase in vitro (PubMed:19875080).

LovD has much higher activity with LovF-bound 2-methylbutanoate than with free diketide substrates (PubMed:21069965).

13 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: lovastatin biosynthesis

This protein is involved in the pathway lovastatin biosynthesis, which is part of Polyketide biosynthesis.2 Publications
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway lovastatin biosynthesis and in Polyketide biosynthesis.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei215NADP1 Publication1
Binding sitei280NADP; via carbonyl oxygen1 Publication1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi51 – 54NADP1 Publication4
Nucleotide bindingi174 – 177NADP1 Publication4
Nucleotide bindingi197 – 200NADP1 Publication4
Nucleotide bindingi262 – 263NADP1 Publication2
Nucleotide bindingi351 – 352NADP1 Publication2

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase, Transferase
LigandNADP, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

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BioCyci
MetaCyc:MONOMER-18781

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

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UniPathwayi
UPA00875

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Lovastatin nonaketide synthase, enoyl reductase component lovC1 Publication (EC:2.3.1.1611 Publication)
Alternative name(s):
Lovastatin biosynthesis cluster protein C1 Publication
Trans-enoyl reductase lovC1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:lovC1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiAspergillus terreus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri33178 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaPezizomycotinaEurotiomycetesEurotiomycetidaeEurotialesAspergillaceaeAspergillusAspergillus subgen. Circumdati

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the use of a specific protein in the biotechnological industry.<p><a href='/help/biotechnological_use' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Biotechnological usei

Lovastatin acts as a hypolipidemic agent that works as inhibitor of (3S)-hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR) which reduces HMG-CoA to mevalonate and is the key step in cholesterol biosynthesis (PubMed:6933445). Lovastatin, simvastatin and related compounds are widely used to treat hypercholesteremia and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (PubMed:6933445). Furthermore, statins such as lovastatin were found to be anticancer agents (PubMed:29236027, PubMed:29932104).3 Publications

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Loss of lovastatin biosynthesis.1 Publication

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology%5Fand%5Fbiotech%5Fsection">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi54K → S: Reduces catalytic efficiency. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi138S → M: Reduces catalytic efficiency. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi139T → V: Reduces catalytic efficiency. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi263N → S: Reduces catalytic efficiency. 1 Publication1

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004302671 – 363Lovastatin nonaketide synthase, enoyl reductase component lovCAdd BLAST363

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Monomer.

Interacts with LovB.

1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

Database of interacting proteins

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DIPi
DIP-60050N

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
Q9Y7D0, 1 interactor

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1363
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
Q9Y7D0

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

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PDBe-KBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

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EvolutionaryTracei
Q9Y7D0

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni135 – 142Substrate bindingSequence analysis8
Regioni282 – 286Substrate bindingSequence analysis5

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR013154, ADH_N
IPR011032, GroES-like_sf
IPR036291, NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf
IPR020843, PKS_ER

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF08240, ADH_N, 1 hit

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

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SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00829, PKS_ER, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

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SUPFAMi
SSF50129, SSF50129, 1 hit
SSF51735, SSF51735, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q9Y7D0-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MGDQPFIPPP QQTALTVNDH DEVTVWNAAP CPMLPRDQVY VRVEAVAINP
60 70 80 90 100
SDTKMRGQFA TPWAFLGTDY AGTVVAVGSD VTHIQVGDRV YGAQNEMCPR
110 120 130 140 150
TPDQGAFSQY TVTRGRVWAK IPKGLSFEQA AALPAGISTA GLAMKLLGLP
160 170 180 190 200
LPSPSADQPP THSKPVYVLV YGGSTATATV TMQMLRLSGY IPIATCSPHN
210 220 230 240 250
FDLAKSRGAE EVFDYRAPNL AQTIRTYTKN NLRYALDCIT NVESTTFCFA
260 270 280 290 300
AIGRAGGHYV SLNPFPEHAA TRKMVTTDWT LGPTIFGEGS TWPAPYGRPG
310 320 330 340 350
SEEERQFGED LWRIAGQLVE DGRLVHHPLR VVQGGFDHIK QGMELVRKGE
360
LSGEKLVVRL EGP
Length:363
Mass (Da):39,511
Last modified:November 1, 1999 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iFDB9524DDB255713
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

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DDBJi
Links Updated
AF141925 Genomic DNA Translation: AAD34554.1

Genome annotation databases

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ag:AAD34554

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF141925 Genomic DNA Translation: AAD34554.1

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

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RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

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PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3B6ZX-ray1.88A1-363[»]
3B70X-ray1.89A1-363[»]
3GQVX-ray1.74A1-363[»]
7CPYelectron microscopy3.60C/D1-363[»]
SMRiQ9Y7D0
ModBaseiSearch...
PDBe-KBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

DIPiDIP-60050N
IntActiQ9Y7D0, 1 interactor

Genome annotation databases

KEGGiag:AAD34554

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00875
BioCyciMetaCyc:MONOMER-18781

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ9Y7D0

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR013154, ADH_N
IPR011032, GroES-like_sf
IPR036291, NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf
IPR020843, PKS_ER
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF08240, ADH_N, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00829, PKS_ER, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF50129, SSF50129, 1 hit
SSF51735, SSF51735, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiLOVC_ASPTE
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9Y7D0
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: September 3, 2014
Last sequence update: November 1, 1999
Last modified: June 2, 2021
This is version 81 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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