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Entry version 80 (02 Jun 2021)
Sequence version 1 (01 Nov 1999)
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Protein

Dihydromonacolin L monooxygenase LovA

Gene

lovA

Organism
Aspergillus terreus
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Dihydromonacolin L monooxygenase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of lovastatin (also known as mevinolin, mevacor or monacolin K), a hypolipidemic inhibitor of (3S)-hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR) (PubMed:10334994, PubMed:12929390, PubMed:21495633).

The first step in the biosynthesis of lovastatin is the production of dihydromonacolin L acid by the lovastatin nonaketide synthase lovB and the trans-acting enoyl reductase lovC via condensation of one acetyl-CoA unit and 8 malonyl-CoA units (PubMed:10334994, PubMed:10381407, PubMed:19900898, PubMed:22733743).

Dihydromonacolin L acid is released from lovB by the thioesterase lovG (PubMed:23653178).

Next, dihydromonacolin L acid is oxidized by the dihydromonacolin L monooxygenase lovA twice to form monacolin J acid (PubMed:12929390, PubMed:21495633).

The 2-methylbutyrate moiety of lovastatin is synthesized by the lovastatin diketide synthase lovF via condensation of one acetyl-CoA unit and one malonyl-CoA unit (PubMed:19530726, PubMed:21069965).

Finally, the covalent attachment of this moiety to monacolin J acid is catalyzed by the transesterase lovD to yield lovastatin (PubMed:10334994, PubMed:17113998, PubMed:18988191, PubMed:19875080, PubMed:24727900).

LovD has broad substrate specificity and can also convert monacolin J to simvastatin using alpha-dimethylbutanoyl-S-methyl-3-mercaptopropionate (DMB-S-MMP) as the thioester acyl donor, and can also catalyze the reverse reaction and function as hydrolase in vitro (PubMed:19875080).

LovD has much higher activity with LovF-bound 2-methylbutanoate than with free diketide substrates (PubMed:21069965).

13 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

hemeBy similarityNote: Binds 1 heme group per subunit.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=6.2 µM for monacolin L acid1 Publication

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: lovastatin biosynthesis

    This protein is involved in the pathway lovastatin biosynthesis, which is part of Polyketide biosynthesis.2 Publications
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway lovastatin biosynthesis and in Polyketide biosynthesis.

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi465Iron (heme axial ligand)By similarity1

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionMonooxygenase, Oxidoreductase
    LigandHeme, Iron, Metal-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    More...
    BioCyci
    MetaCyc:MONOMER-18784

    BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

    More...
    BRENDAi
    1.14.14.124, 536
    1.14.14.125, 536

    UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

    More...
    UniPathwayi
    UPA00875

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Dihydromonacolin L monooxygenase LovA1 Publication (EC:1.14.14.1241 Publication, EC:1.14.14.1251 Publication)
    Alternative name(s):
    Dihydromonacolin L hydroxylase1 Publication
    Lovastatin biosynthesis cluster protein A1 Publication
    Monacolin L hydroxylase1 Publication
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:lovA1 Publication
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiAspergillus terreus
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri33178 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaPezizomycotinaEurotiomycetesEurotiomycetidaeEurotialesAspergillaceaeAspergillusAspergillus subgen. Circumdati

    <p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

    Topology

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular%5Flocation%5Fsection">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the subcellular compartment where each non-membrane region of a membrane-spanning protein is found.<p><a href='/help/topo_dom' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Topological domaini1 – 23CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST23
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular%5Flocation%5Fsection">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.<p><a href='/help/transmem' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transmembranei24 – 44Helical; Signal-anchor for type II membrane proteinSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
    Topological domaini45 – 528LumenalSequence analysisAdd BLAST484

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Endoplasmic reticulum, Membrane

    <p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the use of a specific protein in the biotechnological industry.<p><a href='/help/biotechnological_use' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Biotechnological usei

    Lovastatin acts as a hypolipidemic agent that works as inhibitor of (3S)-hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR) which reduces HMG-CoA to mevalonate and is the key step in cholesterol biosynthesis (PubMed:6933445). Lovastatin, simvastatin and related compounds are widely used to treat hypercholesteremia and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (PubMed:6933445). Furthermore, statins such as lovastatin were found to be anticancer agents (PubMed:29236027, PubMed:29932104).3 Publications

    <p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

    Loss of lovastatin biosynthesis. Accelerates degradation of lovastatin precursors.1 Publication

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004497981 – 528Dihydromonacolin L monooxygenase LovAAdd BLAST528

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the cytochrome P450 family.Curated

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal-anchor, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

    More...
    Gene3Di
    1.10.630.10, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR001128, Cyt_P450
    IPR002401, Cyt_P450_E_grp-I
    IPR036396, Cyt_P450_sf

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF00067, p450, 1 hit

    Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

    More...
    PRINTSi
    PR00463, EP450I

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    More...
    SUPFAMi
    SSF48264, SSF48264, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q9Y7C8-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MTVDALTQPH HLLSLAWNDT QQHGSWFAPL VTTSAGLLCL LLYLCSSGRR
    60 70 80 90 100
    SDLPVFNPKT WWELTTMRAK RDFDANAPSW IESWFSQNDK PIRFIVDSGY
    110 120 130 140 150
    CTILPSSMAD EFRKMKELCM YKFLGTDFHS HLPGFDGFKE VTRDAHLITK
    160 170 180 190 200
    VVMNQFQTQA PKYVKPLANE ASGIITDIFG DSNEWHTVPV YNQCLDLVTR
    210 220 230 240 250
    TVTFIMVGSK LAHNEEWLDI AKHHAVTMAI QARQLRLWPV ILRPLVHWLE
    260 270 280 290 300
    PQGAKLRAQV RRARQLLDPI IQERRAERDA CRAKGIEPPR YVDSIQWFED
    310 320 330 340 350
    TAKGKWYDAA GAQLAMDFAG IYGTSDLLIG GLVDIVRHPH LLEPLRDEIR
    360 370 380 390 400
    TVIGQGGWTP ASLYKLKLLD SCLKESQRVK PVECATMRSY ALQDVTFSNG
    410 420 430 440 450
    TFIPKGELVA VAADRMSNPE VWPEPAKYDP YRYMRLREDP AKAFSAQLEN
    460 470 480 490 500
    TNGDHIGFGW HPRACPGRFF ASKEIKMMLA YLLIRYDWKV VPDEPLQYYR
    510 520
    HSFSVRIHPT TKLMMRRRDE DIRLPGSL
    Length:528
    Mass (Da):60,593
    Last modified:November 1, 1999 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i1A039B185F0557D3
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF141924 Genomic DNA Translation: AAD34552.1

    Genome annotation databases

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    ag:AAD34552

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF141924 Genomic DNA Translation: AAD34552.1

    3D structure databases

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

    More...
    SWISS-MODEL-Workspacei
    Submit a new modelling project...

    Genome annotation databases

    KEGGiag:AAD34552

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00875
    BioCyciMetaCyc:MONOMER-18784
    BRENDAi1.14.14.124, 536
    1.14.14.125, 536

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di1.10.630.10, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR001128, Cyt_P450
    IPR002401, Cyt_P450_E_grp-I
    IPR036396, Cyt_P450_sf
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF00067, p450, 1 hit
    PRINTSiPR00463, EP450I
    SUPFAMiSSF48264, SSF48264, 1 hit

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiLOVA_ASPTE
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9Y7C8
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 2014
    Last sequence update: November 1, 1999
    Last modified: June 2, 2021
    This is version 80 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Documents

    1. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
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