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Entry version 73 (07 Apr 2021)
Sequence version 1 (01 Nov 1999)
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Protein

Chaplin-E

Gene

chpE

Organism
Streptomyces coelicolor (strain ATCC BAA-471 / A3(2) / M145)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

One of 8 partially redundant surface-active proteins required for efficient formation of aerial mycelium; the short chaplins assemble into a hydrophobic, amyloidal fibrillar surface layer that envelopes and protects aerial hyphae and spores, presumably anchored to the long chaplins (PubMed:12832396, PubMed:12832397, PubMed:15228525, PubMed:17462011). Chaplins have an overlapping function with the surface-active SapB peptide; chaplins are essential on minimal medium while on rich medium both chaplins and SapB are required for efficient aerial hyphae formation (PubMed:17462011). Chaplins are also involved in cell attachment to a hydrophobic surface (PubMed:19682261). Forms amyloid fibrils in vitro probably composed of stacked beta-sheets, at low extracellular concentrations individually restores the ability to form aerial hyphae to a chaplin-deficient strain, but does so less well than other short chaplins (PubMed:21526199). A small chaplin extract (ChpD, ChpE, ChpF, ChpG and ChpH) self-assembles into 2 different amyloids; small fibrils at the air-water interface form an amiphipathic membrane that resembles spore-surface structures involved in aerial hyphae formation, and hydrophilic fibrils in solution that resemble the fibers that attach cells to a hydrophobic surface. At the air-water interface the hydrophilic surface is in contact with water (probably equivalent to the peptidoglycan layer), while the hydrophobic face is exposed to the air, making the surface of the aerial hyphae hydrophobic (PubMed:24012833). A minimal chaplin strain capable of forming aerial mycelium/hyphae on minimal medium contains ChpC, ChpE and ChpH. The strain also has restored rodlet formation on the hyphae surface. A second strain with ChpA, ChpD and ChpE makes slightly less robust hyphae. This essential chaplin may coordinate the assembly and/or polymerization of the other chaplins (PubMed:18586935). A small chaplin extract applied to a chaplin-deficient strain restores aerial hyphae formation (PubMed:12832396, PubMed:12832397). The small chaplin extract forms an amyloid-like structure similar to that seen on the surface of cells without rodlets (rdlA-rdlB deletions), and is highly surface active, reducing surface tension from 72 to 26 mJ/m2, which probably allows escape of hyphae from an aqueous environment into air (PubMed:12832396).8 Publications

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Biological processCell adhesion

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Chaplin-E1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:chpE1 Publication
Ordered Locus Names:SCO1800
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiStreptomyces coelicolor (strain ATCC BAA-471 / A3(2) / M145)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri100226 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaActinobacteriaStreptomycetalesStreptomycetaceaeStreptomycesStreptomyces albidoflavus group
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000001973 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Amyloid, Cell wall, Fimbrium, Secreted

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the use of a specific protein in the biotechnological industry.<p><a href='/help/biotechnological_use' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Biotechnological usei

The small chaplin mixture (a cell wall extract of an rdlA-rdlB knockout) forms a stable coat on a number of surfaces (including Teflon and cotton) and emulsifies oil-water mixtures, which could be useful in medical and technical applications.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Essential, it cannot be disrupted individually in a wild-type strain; the lethal effects of its disruption are suppressed by loss of some other chaplins, the roldet protein (RdlA and RdlB) or by inactivation of the tat secretion pathway (PubMed:18586935). Quintuple knockout chpA-chpB-chpC-chpD-chpH has strongly delayed aerial hyphae formation, makes many fewer aerial hyphae but no effect on viability of the spores produced. Further deletion of chpE leads to more severe effects, and on rich media few aerial hyphae are produced after prolonged growth. Those few hyphae do differentiate into spores and have a rodlet layer (PubMed:12832396). Deletion of all 8 chaplin genes on minimal medium leads to severely disrupted aerial hyphae that collapse on the colony surface and are not hydrophobic. A few spore chains can still be made, but they have neither rodlets or amyloid-like fibers. rdlA and rdlB mRNA are down-regulated (PubMed:15228525, PubMed:17462011). Deletion of all 8 chaplin genes on rich medium leads to a reduced abundance of aerial hyphae without rodlets and occasional spore chains on surface hyphae. A complete chaplin-negative plus ram-negative strain (deletion of ramR or the ramC-ramS-ramA-ramB operon) leads to the complete loss of robust aerial hyphae (PubMed:17462011). Deletion of all 8 chaplin genes significantly reduces cellular attachment to a hydrophobic substrate; thin fibrils instead of fimbrae are detected. The long chaplins (ChpA, ChpB and ChpC, as seen by near wild-type attachment of the hextuple chpA-chpB-chpC-chpD-chpE-chpH knockout) are not essential but may contribute to attachment (PubMed:19682261).5 Publications

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 272 PublicationsAdd BLAST27
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_500433613028 – 82Chaplin-EAdd BLAST55

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of the gene product at various stages of a cell, tissue or organism development. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at the protein level'.<p><a href='/help/developmental_stage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Developmental stagei

Present in aerial hyphae of sporulating cultures (at protein level) (PubMed:12832396, PubMed:17462011). Strongest expression in spores, with weaker expression in aerial hyphae.1 Publication2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Highly expressed in 24 hour cultures while still submerged, during aerial hyphae formation on minimal medium, decreases once aerial growth ceases (PubMed:12832396). Strongly induced during aerial hyphae formation and sporulation on rich medium, under control of ECF sigma factor BldN; more strongly expressed when sporulation is blocked by deletion of whiB, whiD or whiH (PubMed:12832397). Expression depends on bldB but not bldA, bldD or bldH (at protein level) (PubMed:17462011).3 Publications

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
100226.SCO1800

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family%5Fand%5Fdomains%5Fsection">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini41 – 81ChaplinPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST41

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term 'domain' is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

The mature protein has a random coil structure at acidic pH, rapidly changing to beta-sheet as the pH rises (examined from pH 3.0 to 10.0); at pH 6.7 and higher forms amyloid fibrils visible by electron microscopy.1 Publication1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the chaplin family. Short chaplin subfamily.1 Publication

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG50348JU, Bacteria

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_145456_3_1_11

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
QAPIHIP

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q9X9Z2

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR005528, ChpA-H

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF03777, ChpA-C, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

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PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS51884, CHAPLIN, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9X9Z2-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MKNLKKAAAV TMVAGGLIAA GAGMASATDG GAHAHGKAVG SPGVASGNLV
60 70 80
QAPIHIPVNA VGNSVNVIGV LNPAFGNLGV NH
Length:82
Mass (Da):7,760
Last modified:November 1, 1999 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i0400569E5A7E097C
GO

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports information derived from mass spectrometry experiments done on the entire protein or on biologically active derived peptide(s).<p><a href='/help/mass_spectrometry' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 5279 Da. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 5271.65 Da. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AL939110 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB45292.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
T36861

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_626070.1, NC_003888.3
WP_003977022.1, NZ_VNID01000001.1

Genome annotation databases

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
1097234

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
sco:SCO1800

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|100226.15.peg.1821

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AL939110 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB45292.1
PIRiT36861
RefSeqiNP_626070.1, NC_003888.3
WP_003977022.1, NZ_VNID01000001.1

3D structure databases

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

More...
SWISS-MODEL-Workspacei
Submit a new modelling project...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi100226.SCO1800

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi1097234
KEGGisco:SCO1800
PATRICifig|100226.15.peg.1821

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG50348JU, Bacteria
HOGENOMiCLU_145456_3_1_11
OMAiQAPIHIP
PhylomeDBiQ9X9Z2

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR005528, ChpA-H
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF03777, ChpA-C, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51884, CHAPLIN, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiCHPE_STRCO
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9X9Z2
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 10, 2018
Last sequence update: November 1, 1999
Last modified: April 7, 2021
This is version 73 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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