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Entry version 77 (23 Feb 2022)
Sequence version 2 (05 Jul 2004)
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Protein

Demethylsterigmatocystin 6-O-methyltransferase

Gene

aflO

Organism
Aspergillus parasiticus (strain ATCC 56775 / NRRL 5862 / SRRC 143 / SU-1)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Demethylsterigmatocystin 6-O-methyltransferase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of aflatoxins, a group of polyketide-derived furanocoumarins, and part of the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds among the known mycotoxins (PubMed:15006741).

The four major aflatoxins produced by A.parasiticus are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) (PubMed:15006741).

The first step of the pathway is the conversion of acetate to norsolorinic acid (NOR) and requires the fatty acid synthase subunits aflA and aflB, as well as the PKS aflC (PubMed:15006741).

AflC combines a hexanoyl starter unit and 7 malonyl-CoA extender units to synthesize the precursor NOR (PubMed:18403714).

The hexanoyl starter unit is provided to the acyl-carrier protein (ACP) domain by the fungal fatty acid synthase aflA/aflB (PubMed:16256699).

The second step is the conversion of NOR to averantin (AVN) and requires the norsolorinic acid ketoreductase aflD, which catalyzes the dehydration of norsolorinic acid to form (1'S)-averantin (PubMed:10584035).

The norsolorinic acid reductases aflE and aflF may also play a role in the conversion of NOR to AVN (PubMed:15006741).

The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase aflG then catalyzes the hydroxylation of AVN to 5'hydroxyaverantin (HAVN) (PubMed:8368836).

The next step is performed by the 5'-hydroxyaverantin dehydrogenase aflH that transforms HAVN to 5'-oxoaverantin (OAVN) which is further converted to averufin (AVF) by aflK that plays a dual role in the pathway, as a 5'-oxoaverantin cyclase that mediates conversion of 5'-oxoaverantin, as well as a versicolorin B synthase in a later step in the pathway (PubMed:15006741, PubMed:11055914, PubMed:15932995).

The averufin oxidase aflI catalyzes the conversion of AVF to versiconal hemiacetal acetate (VHA) (PubMed:15006741).

VHA is then the substrate for the versiconal hemiacetal acetate esterase aflJ to yield versiconal (VAL) (PubMed:15006741).

Versicolorin B synthase aflK then converts VAL to versicolorin B (VERB) by closing the bisfuran ring of aflatoxin which is required for DNA-binding, thus giving to aflatoxin its activity as a mutagen (PubMed:15006741, PubMed:8368837, PubMed:15932995).

Then, the activity of the versicolorin B desaturase aflL leads to versicolorin A (VERA) (PubMed:15006741, PubMed:8368837).

A branch point starts from VERB since it can also be converted to dihydrodemethylsterigmatocystin (DMDHST), probably also by aflL, VERA being a precursor for aflatoxins B1 and G1, and DMDHST for aflatoxins B2 and G2 (PubMed:15006741).

Next, the versicolorin reductase aflM and the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase aflN are involved in conversion of VERA to demethylsterigmatocystin (DMST) (PubMed:15006741, PubMed:1339261, PubMed:15771506).

AflX and aflY seem also involved in this step, through probable aflX-mediated epoxide ring-opening step following versicolorin A oxidation and aflY-mediated Baeyer-Villiger oxidation required for the formation of the xanthone ring (PubMed:16332900, PubMed:16461654).

The methyltransferase aflO then leads to the modification of DMST to sterigmatocystin (ST), and of DMDHST to dihydrosterigmatocystin (DHST) (PubMed:10543813, PubMed:10806361, PubMed:16349476).

Both ST and DHST are then substrates of the O-methyltransferase aflP to yield O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin (DHOMST), respectively (PubMed:8434913).

Finally OMST is converted to aflatoxins B1 and G1, and DHOMST to aflatoxins B2 and G2, via the action of several enzymes including O-methylsterigmatocystin oxidoreductase aflQ, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase aflU, but also the NADH-dependent flavin oxidoreductase nadA which is specifically required for the synthesis of AFG1 (PubMed:15006741, PubMed:11996570, PubMed:15528514, PubMed:18486503).

1 Publication18 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.94 M for demethylsterigmatocystin1 Publication
  2. KM=2.5 µM for dihydrodemethylsterigmatocystin1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 6.5-9.0.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: aflatoxin biosynthesis

This protein is involved in the pathway aflatoxin biosynthesis, which is part of Mycotoxin biosynthesis.1 Publication1 Publication
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway aflatoxin biosynthesis and in Mycotoxin biosynthesis.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei253S-adenosyl-L-methionineBy similarity1
Binding sitei289S-adenosyl-L-methionine; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei293Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • demethylsterigmatocystin 6-O-methyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionMethyltransferase, Transferase
LigandS-adenosyl-L-methionine

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

More...
BRENDAi
2.1.1.109, 523

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00287

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Demethylsterigmatocystin 6-O-methyltransferase1 Publication (EC:2.1.1.1092 Publications)
Alternative name(s):
Aflatoxin biosynthesis protein O1 Publication
O-methyltransferase I1 Publication
Short name:
mt-I1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:aflO1 Publication
Synonyms:dmtA1 Publication, omtB1 Publication
ORF Names:P875_00052999-2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiAspergillus parasiticus (strain ATCC 56775 / NRRL 5862 / SRRC 143 / SU-1)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri1403190 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaPezizomycotinaEurotiomycetesEurotiomycetidaeEurotialesAspergillaceaeAspergillus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000033540 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unassembled WGS sequence

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM / Processing</a> section indicates that the initiator methionine is cleaved from the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/init_met' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Initiator methionineiRemoved1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_50000493272 – 386Demethylsterigmatocystin 6-O-methyltransferaseAdd BLAST385

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q9UQY0

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni137 – 150Substrate bindingBy similarityAdd BLAST14
Regioni177 – 197Substrate bindingBy similarityAdd BLAST21
Regioni228 – 229S-adenosyl-L-methionine bindingBy similarity2
Regioni273 – 274S-adenosyl-L-methionine bindingBy similarity2

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.10.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR016461, COMT-like
IPR001077, O_MeTrfase_dom
IPR029063, SAM-dependent_MTases
IPR036388, WH-like_DNA-bd_sf
IPR036390, WH_DNA-bd_sf

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR43712, PTHR43712, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00891, Methyltransf_2, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

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PIRSFi
PIRSF005739, O-mtase, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

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SUPFAMi
SSF46785, SSF46785, 1 hit
SSF53335, SSF53335, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS51683, SAM_OMT_II, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9UQY0-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MTGLDMEIIF AKIKEEYART DDVGKRQIQG HIRELQVGFY SDWDVVMRLS
60 70 80 90 100
SGPLQVALTK VGIDLGIFRS LKESDTPITL AEIVKKTGAS PRLLGRILRT
110 120 130 140 150
QAAFGLIKET GPQEYTSSAF TDVFANSDAA GAVVQLFDIS GPCTQILPDF
160 170 180 190 200
LAERNYQDIT SNKDCVFQKA FGSDLTMFEW MPQHPKHMES LGHLMALERP
210 220 230 240 250
VSWVDHYPVL EELGGFPAPD KVLMVDIGGG FGQQSKALRA KFPDLPGRLI
260 270 280 290 300
VQDIPQTLAN AQPAAGIEFM EHNFFEPQPI QNAKFYYLRH VFHDWPDEQC
310 320 330 340 350
VLILKQIIPA MGPESQILID EMVIPSTGVP WQAAFTDLLM MNSLGGVERT
360 370 380
RAEWDDLMEQ VGLEIIQSKV YDSKEQAILV AVPKRT
Length:386
Mass (Da):43,155
Last modified:July 5, 2004 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i1C25C2EE5F3F6114
GO

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence KJK60770 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction. The predicted gene P875_00052999 has been split into 2 genes: P875_00052999-1 (aflP) and P875_00052999-2 (aflO).Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti8I → T in AAS66016 (PubMed:10806361).Curated1
Sequence conflicti8I → T in KJK60770 (Ref. 3) Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB022905 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA86103.1
AB022906 mRNA Translation: BAA86104.1
AY371490 Genomic DNA Translation: AAS66016.1
JZEE01000729 Genomic DNA Translation: KJK60770.1 Sequence problems.

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB022905 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA86103.1
AB022906 mRNA Translation: BAA86104.1
AY371490 Genomic DNA Translation: AAS66016.1
JZEE01000729 Genomic DNA Translation: KJK60770.1 Sequence problems.

3D structure databases

SMRiQ9UQY0
ModBaseiSearch...

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00287
BRENDAi2.1.1.109, 523

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.10.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR016461, COMT-like
IPR001077, O_MeTrfase_dom
IPR029063, SAM-dependent_MTases
IPR036388, WH-like_DNA-bd_sf
IPR036390, WH_DNA-bd_sf
PANTHERiPTHR43712, PTHR43712, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00891, Methyltransf_2, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF005739, O-mtase, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF46785, SSF46785, 1 hit
SSF53335, SSF53335, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51683, SAM_OMT_II, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiAFLO_ASPPU
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9UQY0
Secondary accession number(s): A0A0F0HZ60, Q6UEF8
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 1, 2013
Last sequence update: July 5, 2004
Last modified: February 23, 2022
This is version 77 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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