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Protein

Apelin

Gene

APLN

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR) (PubMed:10525157). Drives internalization of the apelin receptor (By similarity). Apelin-36 dissociates more hardly than (pyroglu)apelin-13 from APLNR (By similarity). Hormone involved in the regulation of cardiac precursor cell movements during gastrulation and heart morphogenesis (By similarity). Has an inhibitory effect on cytokine production in response to T-cell receptor/CD3 cross-linking; the oral intake of apelin in the colostrum and the milk might therefore modulate immune responses in neonates (By similarity). Plays a role in early coronary blood vessels formation (By similarity). Mediates myocardial contractility in an ERK1/2-dependent manner (By similarity). May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing vasopressin release and drinking behavior (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication
(Microbial infection) Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR), an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection (PubMed:11090199). Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APLNR (PubMed:11090199). Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives (PubMed:11090199).1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • apelin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • G-protein coupled receptor binding Source: GO_Central
  • hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • protein homodimerization activity Source: Ensembl
  • signaling receptor binding Source: ProtInc

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDevelopmental protein, Hormone
Biological processAngiogenesis, Gastrulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Apelin
Alternative name(s):
APJ endogenous ligand
Cleaved into the following 4 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:APLN
Synonyms:APEL
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome X

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000171388.11
HGNCiHGNC:16665 APLN
MIMi300297 gene
neXtProtiNX_Q9ULZ1

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi8862
OpenTargetsiENSG00000171388
PharmGKBiPA134984493

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3232687

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 22Sequence analysisAdd BLAST22
PropeptideiPRO_000000175923 – 41By similarityAdd BLAST19
PeptideiPRO_000000176042 – 77Apelin-36By similarityAdd BLAST36
PeptideiPRO_000000176147 – 77Apelin-31By similarityAdd BLAST31
PeptideiPRO_000000176250 – 77Apelin-28By similarityAdd BLAST28
PeptideiPRO_000000176365 – 77Apelin-13By similarityAdd BLAST13

Post-translational modificationi

Several active peptides may be produced by proteolytic processing of the peptide precursor.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9ULZ1
PRIDEiQ9ULZ1
ProteomicsDBi85156

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in the brain with highest levels in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain (PubMed:10617103). Secreted by the mammary gland into the colostrum and the milk.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000171388 Expressed in 146 organ(s), highest expression level in placenta
CleanExiHS_APLN
GenevisibleiQ9ULZ1 HS

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114385, 5 interactors
IntActiQ9ULZ1, 1 interactor
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000305464

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiQ9ULZ1

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9ULZ1
SMRiQ9ULZ1
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the apelin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J5ST Eukaryota
ENOG410ZHPP LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014020
HOGENOMiHOG000033992
HOVERGENiHBG018249
InParanoidiQ9ULZ1
KOiK05225
OMAiPMASTEH
OrthoDBiEOG091G19F6
PhylomeDBiQ9ULZ1
TreeFamiTF339660

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR026155 Apelin
PANTHERiPTHR15953 PTHR15953, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF15360 Apelin, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9ULZ1-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MNLRLCVQAL LLLWLSLTAV CGGSLMPLPD GNGLEDGNVR HLVQPRGSRN
60 70
GPGPWQGGRR KFRRQRPRLS HKGPMPF
Length:77
Mass (Da):8,569
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:i41521E0DBE97BFDA
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB023493 mRNA Translation: BAA84975.1
AF179680 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF25815.1
AL022162 Genomic DNA No translation available.
BC021104 mRNA Translation: AAH21104.2
CCDSiCCDS48165.1
RefSeqiNP_059109.3, NM_017413.4
UniGeneiHs.303084

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000429967; ENSP00000391800; ENSG00000171388
GeneIDi8862
KEGGihsa:8862
UCSCiuc004eus.4 human

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAPEL_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9ULZ1
Secondary accession number(s): Q4VY08, Q8WU89
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 23, 2002
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: September 12, 2018
This is version 130 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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