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Protein

Apelin

Gene

APLN

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR) (PubMed:10525157). Drives internalization of the apelin receptor (By similarity). Apelin-36 dissociates more hardly than (pyroglu)apelin-13 from APLNR (By similarity). Hormone involved in the regulation of cardiac precursor cell movements during gastrulation and heart morphogenesis (By similarity). Has an inhibitory effect on cytokine production in response to T-cell receptor/CD3 cross-linking; the oral intake of apelin in the colostrum and the milk might therefore modulate immune responses in neonates (By similarity). Plays a role in early coronary blood vessels formation (By similarity). Mediates myocardial contractility in an ERK1/2-dependent manner (By similarity). May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing vasopressin release and drinking behavior (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication
(Microbial infection) Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR), an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection (PubMed:11090199). Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APLNR (PubMed:11090199). Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives (PubMed:11090199).1 Publication

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • apelin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • protein homodimerization activity Source: Ensembl
  • signaling receptor binding Source: ProtInc

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionDevelopmental protein, Hormone
Biological processAngiogenesis, Gastrulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-HSA-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Apelin
Alternative name(s):
APJ endogenous ligand
Cleaved into the following 4 chains:
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:APLN
Synonyms:APEL
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome X

Organism-specific databases

Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources

More...
EuPathDBi
HostDB:ENSG00000171388.11

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

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HGNCi
HGNC:16665 APLN

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

More...
MIMi
300297 gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

More...
neXtProti
NX_Q9ULZ1

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

More...
DisGeNETi
8862

Open Targets

More...
OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000171388

The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

More...
PharmGKBi
PA134984493

Chemistry databases

ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

More...
ChEMBLi
CHEMBL3232687

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 22Sequence analysisAdd BLAST22
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section describes a propeptide, which is a part of a protein that is cleaved during maturation or activation. Once cleaved, a propeptide generally has no independent biological function.<p><a href='/help/propep' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PropeptideiPRO_000000175923 – 41By similarityAdd BLAST19
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the position and length of an active peptide in the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/peptide' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PeptideiPRO_000000176042 – 77Apelin-36By similarityAdd BLAST36
PeptideiPRO_000000176147 – 77Apelin-31By similarityAdd BLAST31
PeptideiPRO_000000176250 – 77Apelin-28By similarityAdd BLAST28
PeptideiPRO_000000176365 – 77Apelin-13By similarityAdd BLAST13

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Several active peptides may be produced by proteolytic processing of the peptide precursor.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q9ULZ1

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

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PRIDEi
Q9ULZ1

ProteomicsDB human proteome resource

More...
ProteomicsDBi
85156

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed in the brain with highest levels in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain (PubMed:10617103). Secreted by the mammary gland into the colostrum and the milk.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSG00000171388 Expressed in 146 organ(s), highest expression level in placenta

CleanEx database of gene expression profiles

More...
CleanExi
HS_APLN

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
Q9ULZ1 HS

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

More...
BioGridi
114385, 5 interactors

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
Q9ULZ1, 1 interactor

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9606.ENSP00000305464

Chemistry databases

BindingDB database of measured binding affinities

More...
BindingDBi
Q9ULZ1

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

More...
ProteinModelPortali
Q9ULZ1

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q9ULZ1

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the apelin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG410J5ST Eukaryota
ENOG410ZHPP LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00390000014020

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000033992

The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

More...
HOVERGENi
HBG018249

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q9ULZ1

KEGG Orthology (KO)

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KOi
K05225

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
CGVPLMQ

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
EOG091G19F6

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q9ULZ1

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF339660

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR026155 Apelin

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR15953 PTHR15953, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF15360 Apelin, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9ULZ1-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MNLRLCVQAL LLLWLSLTAV CGGSLMPLPD GNGLEDGNVR HLVQPRGSRN
60 70
GPGPWQGGRR KFRRQRPRLS HKGPMPF
Length:77
Mass (Da):8,569
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i41521E0DBE97BFDA
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB023493 mRNA Translation: BAA84975.1
AF179680 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF25815.1
AL022162 Genomic DNA No translation available.
BC021104 mRNA Translation: AAH21104.2

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

More...
CCDSi
CCDS48165.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_059109.3, NM_017413.4

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

More...
UniGenei
Hs.303084

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENST00000429967; ENSP00000391800; ENSG00000171388

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
8862

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
hsa:8862

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
uc004eus.4 human

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB023493 mRNA Translation: BAA84975.1
AF179680 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF25815.1
AL022162 Genomic DNA No translation available.
BC021104 mRNA Translation: AAH21104.2
CCDSiCCDS48165.1
RefSeqiNP_059109.3, NM_017413.4
UniGeneiHs.303084

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9ULZ1
SMRiQ9ULZ1
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114385, 5 interactors
IntActiQ9ULZ1, 1 interactor
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000305464

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiQ9ULZ1
ChEMBLiCHEMBL3232687

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9ULZ1
PRIDEiQ9ULZ1
ProteomicsDBi85156

Protocols and materials databases

The DNASU plasmid repository

More...
DNASUi
8862
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000429967; ENSP00000391800; ENSG00000171388
GeneIDi8862
KEGGihsa:8862
UCSCiuc004eus.4 human

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
8862
DisGeNETi8862
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000171388.11

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

More...
GeneCardsi
APLN
HGNCiHGNC:16665 APLN
MIMi300297 gene
neXtProtiNX_Q9ULZ1
OpenTargetsiENSG00000171388
PharmGKBiPA134984493

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J5ST Eukaryota
ENOG410ZHPP LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014020
HOGENOMiHOG000033992
HOVERGENiHBG018249
InParanoidiQ9ULZ1
KOiK05225
OMAiCGVPLMQ
OrthoDBiEOG091G19F6
PhylomeDBiQ9ULZ1
TreeFamiTF339660

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

More...
ChiTaRSi
APLN human

The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

More...
GeneWikii
Apelin

Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

More...
GenomeRNAii
8862

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q9ULZ1

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

More...
SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000171388 Expressed in 146 organ(s), highest expression level in placenta
CleanExiHS_APLN
GenevisibleiQ9ULZ1 HS

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR026155 Apelin
PANTHERiPTHR15953 PTHR15953, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF15360 Apelin, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiAPEL_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9ULZ1
Secondary accession number(s): Q4VY08, Q8WU89
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 23, 2002
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: November 7, 2018
This is version 131 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome X
    Human chromosome X: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
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