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Protein

Appetite-regulating hormone

Gene

GHRL

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation.
Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ghrelin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • G protein-coupled receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • growth hormone-releasing hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • protein tyrosine kinase activator activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionHormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-HSA-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-HSA-422085 Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin
SIGNORiQ9UBU3

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Appetite-regulating hormone
Alternative name(s):
Growth hormone secretagogue
Growth hormone-releasing peptide
Motilin-related peptide
Protein M46
Cleaved into the following 3 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:GHRL
Synonyms:MTLRP
ORF Names:UNQ524/PRO1066
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000157017.15
HGNCiHGNC:18129 GHRL
MIMi605353 gene
neXtProtiNX_Q9UBU3

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi51738
MalaCardsiGHRL
OpenTargetsiENSG00000157017
PharmGKBiPA142671740

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL1921664

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGHRL
DMDMi17865471

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 232 PublicationsAdd BLAST23
PeptideiPRO_000001920224 – 51Ghrelin-28Add BLAST28
PeptideiPRO_000001920324 – 50Ghrelin-27Add BLAST27
PropeptideiPRO_000001920452 – 75Removed in mature formAdd BLAST24
PeptideiPRO_000004514076 – 98ObestatinBy similarityAdd BLAST23
PropeptideiPRO_000004514199 – 117Removed in mature formBy similarityAdd BLAST19

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Lipidationi26O-decanoyl serine; alternate2 Publications1
Lipidationi26O-octanoyl serine; alternate2 Publications1
Modified residuei98Leucine amideBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

O-octanoylation or O-decanoylation is essential for ghrelin activity. The O-decanoylated forms Ghrelin-27-C10 and Ghrelin-28-C10 differ in the length of the carbon backbone of the carboxylic acid bound to Ser-26. A small fraction of ghrelin, ghrelin-28-C10:1, may be modified with a singly unsaturated carboxylic acid (PubMed:10604470).1 Publication
Amidation of Leu-98 is essential for obestatin activity.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Lipoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9UBU3
PeptideAtlasiQ9UBU3
PRIDEiQ9UBU3
ProteomicsDBi84065
84066 [Q9UBU3-2]
84067 [Q9UBU3-3]
84068 [Q9UBU3-4]
84069 [Q9UBU3-5]

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9UBU3
PhosphoSitePlusiQ9UBU3

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBiQ9UBU3

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highest level in stomach. All forms are found in serum as well. Other tissues compensate for the loss of ghrelin synthesis in the stomach following gastrectomy.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000157017 Expressed in 120 organ(s), highest expression level in fundus of stomach
CleanExiHS_GHRL
ExpressionAtlasiQ9UBU3 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ9UBU3 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB022731
HPA014246

Interactioni

Binary interactionsi

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi119706, 5 interactors
IntActiQ9UBU3, 2 interactors
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000335074

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiQ9UBU3

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9UBU3
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the motilin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IZYV Eukaryota
ENOG410ZG1B LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004064
HOGENOMiHOG000146466
HOVERGENiHBG018522
InParanoidiQ9UBU3
KOiK05254
OMAiEIQFNAP
OrthoDBiEOG091G0YG0
PhylomeDBiQ9UBU3
TreeFamiTF336219

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR006737 Motilin_assoc
IPR006738 Motilin_ghrelin
IPR005441 Preproghrelin
PANTHERiPTHR14122 PTHR14122, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF04643 Motilin_assoc, 1 hit
PF04644 Motilin_ghrelin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01624 GHRELIN

Sequences (6+)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 6 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 6 described isoforms and 2 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9UBU3-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: Ghrelin

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MPSPGTVCSL LLLGMLWLDL AMAGSSFLSP EHQRVQQRKE SKKPPAKLQP
60 70 80 90 100
RALAGWLRPE DGGQAEGAED ELEVRFNAPF DVGIKLSGVQ YQQHSQALGK
110
FLQDILWEEA KEAPADK
Length:117
Mass (Da):12,911
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:i39C0572EBECA2755
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9UBU3-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: des-Gln14-ghrelin

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     37-37: Missing.

Show »
Length:116
Mass (Da):12,783
Checksum:iF0DEBEEE880DC951
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: Q9UBU3-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-36: MPSPGTVCSLLLLGMLWLDLAMAGSSFLSPEHQRVQ → MFTCWWSYLRSTLAAVPGEASRVQ

Show »
Length:105
Mass (Da):11,784
Checksum:i9E4000D6A0863F99
GO
Isoform 4 (identifier: Q9UBU3-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-36: MPSPGTVCSLLLLGMLWLDLAMAGSSFLSPEHQRVQ → MFTCWWSYLRSTLAAVPGEASRVQ
     37-37: Missing.

Show »
Length:104
Mass (Da):11,656
Checksum:i508946F0C415058F
GO
Isoform 5 (identifier: Q9UBU3-5) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-75: MPSPGTVCSL...EGAEDELEVR → MFTCWWSYLRSTLAAVPGEASRVQ

Show »
Length:66
Mass (Da):7,460
Checksum:i5001F0A57716C83D
GO
Isoform 6 (identifier: Q9UBU3-6) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     76-117: FNAPFDVGIKLSGVQYQQHSQALGKFLQDILWEEAKEAPADK → RPQPTSDRPQALLTSL

Show »
Length:91
Mass (Da):9,972
Checksum:iE7E532D32A3F8609
GO

Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 2 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
E7ESW0E7ESW0_HUMAN
Appetite-regulating hormone
GHRL
33Annotation score:
A8DN24A8DN24_HUMAN
Appetite-regulating hormone
GHRL
40Annotation score:

Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 3398.9±0.3 Da from positions 24 - 51. Determined by ESI. Ghrelin-28-C10, O-decanoylated form.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3397.2±0.5 Da from positions 24 - 51. Determined by ESI. Ghrelin-28-C10:1, O-decenoylated form.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3371.3±0.1 Da from positions 24 - 51. Determined by ESI. Ghrelin-28-C8, O-octanoylated form.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3243.6±0.4 Da from positions 24 - 50. Determined by ESI. Ghrelin-27-C10, O-decanoylated form.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3214.6±0.6 Da from positions 24 - 50. Determined by ESI. Ghrelin-27-C8, O-octanoylated form.1 Publication

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_05009572L → M1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs696217Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_02913590Q → L. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs4684677Ensembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0414381 – 75MPSPG…ELEVR → MFTCWWSYLRSTLAAVPGEA SRVQ in isoform 5. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST75
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0414371 – 36MPSPG…HQRVQ → MFTCWWSYLRSTLAAVPGEA SRVQ in isoform 3 and isoform 4. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST36
Alternative sequenceiVSP_00324537Missing in isoform 2 and isoform 4. 2 Publications1
Alternative sequenceiVSP_04764276 – 117FNAPF…APADK → RPQPTSDRPQALLTSL in isoform 6. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST42

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB029434 mRNA Translation: BAA89371.1
AJ252278 mRNA Translation: CAB65733.1
AF296558 Genomic DNA Translation: AAG10300.1
EU072086 mRNA Translation: ABV55189.1
EF549569 mRNA Translation: ABQ40357.1
EF549571 mRNA Translation: ABQ40358.1
EF549572 mRNA Translation: ABQ40359.1
EF549573 mRNA Translation: ABQ40360.1
EF549574 mRNA Translation: ABQ40361.1
EF549575 mRNA Translation: ABQ40362.1
EU072083 mRNA Translation: ABV55186.1
EU072084 mRNA Translation: ABV55187.1
EU072085 mRNA Translation: ABV55188.1
EU072087 mRNA Translation: ABV55190.1
AY184207 mRNA Translation: AAO27351.1
AY359053 mRNA Translation: AAQ89412.1
AC022384 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471055 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW64074.1
CH471055 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW64075.1
BC025791 mRNA Translation: AAH25791.1
AB035700 mRNA Translation: BAB19045.1
CCDSiCCDS33700.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
CCDS46747.1 [Q9UBU3-5]
CCDS46748.1 [Q9UBU3-3]
CCDS46749.1 [Q9UBU3-4]
CCDS46750.1 [Q9UBU3-2]
PIRiA59316
RefSeqiNP_001128413.1, NM_001134941.2 [Q9UBU3-2]
NP_001128416.1, NM_001134944.1 [Q9UBU3-3]
NP_001128417.1, NM_001134945.1 [Q9UBU3-4]
NP_001128418.1, NM_001134946.1 [Q9UBU3-5]
NP_001289750.1, NM_001302821.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
NP_001289751.1, NM_001302822.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
NP_001289752.1, NM_001302823.1 [Q9UBU3-2]
NP_001289753.1, NM_001302824.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
NP_001289754.1, NM_001302825.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
NP_057446.1, NM_016362.4 [Q9UBU3-1]
XP_016862101.1, XM_017006612.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
XP_016862102.1, XM_017006613.1 [Q9UBU3-2]
UniGeneiHs.590080
Hs.672979

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000287656; ENSP00000287656; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-2]
ENST00000335542; ENSP00000335074; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-1]
ENST00000422159; ENSP00000405464; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-6]
ENST00000429122; ENSP00000414819; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-1]
ENST00000430179; ENSP00000399922; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-2]
ENST00000437422; ENSP00000416768; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-3]
ENST00000439975; ENSP00000403725; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-5]
ENST00000449238; ENSP00000388145; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-4]
ENST00000457360; ENSP00000391406; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-1]
GeneIDi51738
KEGGihsa:51738
UCSCiuc003bvj.2 human [Q9UBU3-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Protein Spotlight

Gut feelings - Issue 66 of January 2006

Wikipedia

Ghrelin entry

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB029434 mRNA Translation: BAA89371.1
AJ252278 mRNA Translation: CAB65733.1
AF296558 Genomic DNA Translation: AAG10300.1
EU072086 mRNA Translation: ABV55189.1
EF549569 mRNA Translation: ABQ40357.1
EF549571 mRNA Translation: ABQ40358.1
EF549572 mRNA Translation: ABQ40359.1
EF549573 mRNA Translation: ABQ40360.1
EF549574 mRNA Translation: ABQ40361.1
EF549575 mRNA Translation: ABQ40362.1
EU072083 mRNA Translation: ABV55186.1
EU072084 mRNA Translation: ABV55187.1
EU072085 mRNA Translation: ABV55188.1
EU072087 mRNA Translation: ABV55190.1
AY184207 mRNA Translation: AAO27351.1
AY359053 mRNA Translation: AAQ89412.1
AC022384 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471055 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW64074.1
CH471055 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW64075.1
BC025791 mRNA Translation: AAH25791.1
AB035700 mRNA Translation: BAB19045.1
CCDSiCCDS33700.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
CCDS46747.1 [Q9UBU3-5]
CCDS46748.1 [Q9UBU3-3]
CCDS46749.1 [Q9UBU3-4]
CCDS46750.1 [Q9UBU3-2]
PIRiA59316
RefSeqiNP_001128413.1, NM_001134941.2 [Q9UBU3-2]
NP_001128416.1, NM_001134944.1 [Q9UBU3-3]
NP_001128417.1, NM_001134945.1 [Q9UBU3-4]
NP_001128418.1, NM_001134946.1 [Q9UBU3-5]
NP_001289750.1, NM_001302821.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
NP_001289751.1, NM_001302822.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
NP_001289752.1, NM_001302823.1 [Q9UBU3-2]
NP_001289753.1, NM_001302824.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
NP_001289754.1, NM_001302825.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
NP_057446.1, NM_016362.4 [Q9UBU3-1]
XP_016862101.1, XM_017006612.1 [Q9UBU3-1]
XP_016862102.1, XM_017006613.1 [Q9UBU3-2]
UniGeneiHs.590080
Hs.672979

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1P7Xmodel-A1-117[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ9UBU3
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi119706, 5 interactors
IntActiQ9UBU3, 2 interactors
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000335074

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiQ9UBU3
ChEMBLiCHEMBL1921664

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9UBU3
PhosphoSitePlusiQ9UBU3

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGHRL
DMDMi17865471

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9UBU3
PeptideAtlasiQ9UBU3
PRIDEiQ9UBU3
ProteomicsDBi84065
84066 [Q9UBU3-2]
84067 [Q9UBU3-3]
84068 [Q9UBU3-4]
84069 [Q9UBU3-5]

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi51738
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000287656; ENSP00000287656; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-2]
ENST00000335542; ENSP00000335074; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-1]
ENST00000422159; ENSP00000405464; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-6]
ENST00000429122; ENSP00000414819; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-1]
ENST00000430179; ENSP00000399922; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-2]
ENST00000437422; ENSP00000416768; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-3]
ENST00000439975; ENSP00000403725; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-5]
ENST00000449238; ENSP00000388145; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-4]
ENST00000457360; ENSP00000391406; ENSG00000157017 [Q9UBU3-1]
GeneIDi51738
KEGGihsa:51738
UCSCiuc003bvj.2 human [Q9UBU3-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi51738
DisGeNETi51738
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000157017.15
GeneCardsiGHRL
HGNCiHGNC:18129 GHRL
HPAiCAB022731
HPA014246
MalaCardsiGHRL
MIMi605353 gene
neXtProtiNX_Q9UBU3
OpenTargetsiENSG00000157017
PharmGKBiPA142671740
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IZYV Eukaryota
ENOG410ZG1B LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004064
HOGENOMiHOG000146466
HOVERGENiHBG018522
InParanoidiQ9UBU3
KOiK05254
OMAiEIQFNAP
OrthoDBiEOG091G0YG0
PhylomeDBiQ9UBU3
TreeFamiTF336219

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-HSA-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-HSA-422085 Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin
SIGNORiQ9UBU3

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikiiGhrelin
GenomeRNAii51738
PMAP-CutDBiQ9UBU3
PROiPR:Q9UBU3
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000157017 Expressed in 120 organ(s), highest expression level in fundus of stomach
CleanExiHS_GHRL
ExpressionAtlasiQ9UBU3 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ9UBU3 HS

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR006737 Motilin_assoc
IPR006738 Motilin_ghrelin
IPR005441 Preproghrelin
PANTHERiPTHR14122 PTHR14122, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF04643 Motilin_assoc, 1 hit
PF04644 Motilin_ghrelin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01624 GHRELIN
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGHRL_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9UBU3
Secondary accession number(s): A8CF34
, A8CF38, A8CF42, A8DN29, A8DN30, Q86YP8, Q8TAT9, Q9H3R3
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 13, 2001
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: November 7, 2018
This is version 178 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. Human chromosome 3
    Human chromosome 3: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  5. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  6. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  7. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
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