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Protein

Methionine synthase reductase

Gene

MTRR

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Involved in the reductive regeneration of cob(I)alamin (vitamin B12) cofactor required for the maintenance of methionine synthase in a functional state. Necessary for utilization of methylgroups from the folate cycle, thereby affecting transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Folate pathway donates methyl groups necessary for cellular methylation and affects different pathways such as DNA methylation, possibly explaining the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance effects.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

2 [methionine synthase]-methylcob(I)alamin + 2 S-adenosylhomocysteine + NADP+ = 2 [methionine synthase]-cob(II)alamin + NADPH + 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine.1 Publication

Cofactori

Protein has several cofactor binding sites:
  • FAD1 Publication
  • FMN1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=2.89 µM for NADPH1 Publication
  2. KM=3540 µM for NADH1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Binding sitei318NADP1 Publication1
    Binding sitei686NADP1 Publication1
    Binding sitei724FAD1 Publication1

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Nucleotide bindingi120 – 151FMNPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST32
    Nucleotide bindingi478 – 481FAD1 Publication4
    Nucleotide bindingi514 – 517FAD1 Publication4
    Nucleotide bindingi637 – 638NADP1 Publication2
    Nucleotide bindingi651 – 653NADP1 Publication3

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • [methionine synthase] reductase activity Source: BHF-UCL
    • aquacobalamin reductase (NADPH) activity Source: CACAO
    • FAD binding Source: BHF-UCL
    • flavin adenine dinucleotide binding Source: UniProtKB
    • FMN binding Source: BHF-UCL
    • NADP binding Source: UniProtKB
    • NADPH binding Source: BHF-UCL
    • NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity Source: BHF-UCL
    • oxidoreductase activity, oxidizing metal ions, NAD or NADP as acceptor Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    • cobalamin metabolic process Source: Reactome
    • DNA methylation Source: UniProtKB
    • folic acid metabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    • homocysteine catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    • methionine biosynthetic process Source: BHF-UCL
    • methionine metabolic process Source: UniProtKB
    • negative regulation of cystathionine beta-synthase activity Source: BHF-UCL
    • oxidation-reduction process Source: UniProtKB
    • S-adenosylmethionine cycle Source: BHF-UCL

    Keywordsi

    Molecular functionOxidoreductase
    Biological processAmino-acid biosynthesis, Methionine biosynthesis
    LigandFAD, Flavoprotein, FMN, NADP, S-adenosyl-L-methionine

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciMetaCyc:HS04756-MONOMER
    BRENDAi1.16.1.8 2681
    ReactomeiR-HSA-156581 Methylation
    R-HSA-1614635 Sulfur amino acid metabolism
    R-HSA-196741 Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) transport and metabolism
    R-HSA-3359467 Defective MTRR causes methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type cblE
    R-HSA-3359469 Defective MTR causes methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type cblG
    SABIO-RKiQ9UBK8

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Methionine synthase reductase (EC:1.16.1.81 Publication)
    Short name:
    MSR
    Gene namesi
    Name:MTRR
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    Proteomesi
    • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 5

    Organism-specific databases

    EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000124275.14
    HGNCiHGNC:7473 MTRR
    MIMi602568 gene
    neXtProtiNX_Q9UBK8

    Subcellular locationi

    Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Involvement in diseasei

    Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia, cblE complementation type (HMAE)2 Publications
    The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Disease descriptionAn autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting from defects in the cobalamin-dependent pathway that converts homocysteine to methionine. It causes delayed psychomotor development, megaloblastic anemia, homocystinuria, and hypomethioninemia. Cells from patients with HMAE fail to incorporate methyltetrahydrofolate into methionine in whole cells, but cell extracts show normal methionine synthase activity in the presence of a reducing agent.
    See also OMIM:236270
    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Natural variantiVAR_01283781Missing in HMAE. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_01283883V → M in HMAE. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs761061866Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_012839156A → T in HMAE. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_012841432C → R in HMAE. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_012842514G → R in HMAE. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs137853061Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_015731581G → R in HMAE. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_012843603Missing in HMAE. 1 Publication1
    Neural tube defects, folate-sensitive (NTDFS)2 Publications
    Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Disease descriptionThe most common NTDs are open spina bifida (myelomeningocele) and anencephaly.
    See also OMIM:601634

    Keywords - Diseasei

    Disease mutation

    Organism-specific databases

    DisGeNETi4552
    GeneReviewsiMTRR
    MalaCardsiMTRR
    MIMi236270 phenotype
    601634 phenotype
    OpenTargetsiENSG00000124275
    Orphaneti2169 Methylcobalamin deficiency type cblE
    PharmGKBiPA31277

    Chemistry databases

    DrugBankiDB00115 Cyanocobalamin
    DB00200 Hydroxocobalamin
    DB00134 L-Methionine

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMutaiMTRR
    DMDMi296439300

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    ChainiPRO_00000217851 – 725Methionine synthase reductaseAdd BLAST725

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Modified residuei198PhosphoserineCombined sources1
    Modified residuei216PhosphoserineCombined sources1

    Keywords - PTMi

    Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    EPDiQ9UBK8
    MaxQBiQ9UBK8
    PaxDbiQ9UBK8
    PeptideAtlasiQ9UBK8
    PRIDEiQ9UBK8
    ProteomicsDBi83984
    83985 [Q9UBK8-2]
    83986 [Q9UBK8-3]

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiQ9UBK8
    PhosphoSitePlusiQ9UBK8
    SwissPalmiQ9UBK8

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Found in all tissues tested, particularly abundant in skeletal muscle.

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiENSG00000124275
    CleanExiHS_MTRR
    ExpressionAtlasiQ9UBK8 baseline and differential
    GenevisibleiQ9UBK8 HS

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiHPA038113

    Interactioni

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    FLJ13057Q53SE73EBI-10319161,EBI-10172181

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi110645, 14 interactors
    DIPiDIP-61183N
    IntActiQ9UBK8, 8 interactors
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000264668

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1725
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Helixi262 – 264Combined sources3
    Beta strandi277 – 282Combined sources6
    Beta strandi301 – 310Combined sources10
    Beta strandi320 – 326Combined sources7
    Beta strandi339 – 343Combined sources5
    Helixi348 – 357Combined sources10
    Helixi361 – 363Combined sources3
    Beta strandi366 – 372Combined sources7
    Helixi393 – 399Combined sources7
    Helixi409 – 416Combined sources8
    Helixi422 – 432Combined sources11
    Helixi437 – 443Combined sources7
    Turni444 – 448Combined sources5
    Helixi451 – 457Combined sources7
    Helixi465 – 471Combined sources7
    Beta strandi478 – 481Combined sources4
    Turni486 – 488Combined sources3
    Beta strandi492 – 498Combined sources7
    Beta strandi501 – 503Combined sources3
    Beta strandi510 – 513Combined sources4
    Helixi515 – 523Combined sources9
    Turni524 – 527Combined sources4
    Beta strandi546 – 551Combined sources6
    Beta strandi567 – 570Combined sources4
    Helixi573 – 576Combined sources4
    Helixi577 – 592Combined sources16
    Beta strandi601 – 608Combined sources8
    Turni610 – 612Combined sources3
    Helixi617 – 625Combined sources9
    Beta strandi631 – 639Combined sources9
    Helixi652 – 658Combined sources7
    Helixi660 – 669Combined sources10
    Beta strandi673 – 679Combined sources7
    Helixi681 – 699Combined sources19
    Helixi703 – 715Combined sources13
    Beta strandi718 – 723Combined sources6

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    2QTLX-ray1.90A192-725[»]
    2QTZX-ray1.90A192-725[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ9UBK8
    SMRiQ9UBK8
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiQ9UBK8

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Domaini32 – 174Flavodoxin-likePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST143
    Domaini298 – 560FAD-binding FR-typePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST263

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Regioni193 – 274HingeAdd BLAST82

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG1158 Eukaryota
    COG0369 LUCA
    GeneTreeiENSGT00920000149089
    HOGENOMiHOG000007485
    HOVERGENiHBG108376
    InParanoidiQ9UBK8
    KOiK00597
    OMAiPWIAGLW
    OrthoDBiEOG091G045Q
    PhylomeDBiQ9UBK8
    TreeFamiTF105716

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di1.20.990.10, 2 hits
    3.40.50.360, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR003097 FAD-binding_1
    IPR017927 Fd_Rdtase_FAD-bd
    IPR001094 Flavdoxin-like
    IPR008254 Flavodoxin/NO_synth
    IPR001709 Flavoprot_Pyr_Nucl_cyt_Rdtase
    IPR029039 Flavoprotein-like_sf
    IPR023173 NADPH_Cyt_P450_Rdtase_alpha
    IPR001433 OxRdtase_FAD/NAD-bd
    IPR017938 Riboflavin_synthase-like_b-brl
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF00667 FAD_binding_1, 1 hit
    PF00258 Flavodoxin_1, 1 hit
    PF00175 NAD_binding_1, 1 hit
    PRINTSiPR00369 FLAVODOXIN
    PR00371 FPNCR
    SUPFAMiSSF52218 SSF52218, 1 hit
    SSF63380 SSF63380, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS51384 FAD_FR, 1 hit
    PS50902 FLAVODOXIN_LIKE, 1 hit

    Sequences (3)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    This entry describes 3 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

    Isoform A (identifier: Q9UBK8-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MGAASVRAGA RLVEVALCSF TVTCLEVMRR FLLLYATQQG QAKAIAEEIC
    60 70 80 90 100
    EQAVVHGFSA DLHCISESDK YDLKTETAPL VVVVSTTGTG DPPDTARKFV
    110 120 130 140 150
    KEIQNQTLPV DFFAHLRYGL LGLGDSEYTY FCNGGKIIDK RLQELGARHF
    160 170 180 190 200
    YDTGHADDCV GLELVVEPWI AGLWPALRKH FRSSRGQEEI SGALPVASPA
    210 220 230 240 250
    SSRTDLVKSE LLHIESQVEL LRFDDSGRKD SEVLKQNAVN SNQSNVVIED
    260 270 280 290 300
    FESSLTRSVP PLSQASLNIP GLPPEYLQVH LQESLGQEES QVSVTSADPV
    310 320 330 340 350
    FQVPISKAVQ LTTNDAIKTT LLVELDISNT DFSYQPGDAF SVICPNSDSE
    360 370 380 390 400
    VQSLLQRLQL EDKREHCVLL KIKADTKKKG ATLPQHIPAG CSLQFIFTWC
    410 420 430 440 450
    LEIRAIPKKA FLRALVDYTS DSAEKRRLQE LCSKQGAADY SRFVRDACAC
    460 470 480 490 500
    LLDLLLAFPS CQPPLSLLLE HLPKLQPRPY SCASSSLFHP GKLHFVFNIV
    510 520 530 540 550
    EFLSTATTEV LRKGVCTGWL ALLVASVLQP NIHASHEDSG KALAPKISIS
    560 570 580 590 600
    PRTTNSFHLP DDPSIPIIMV GPGTGIAPFI GFLQHREKLQ EQHPDGNFGA
    610 620 630 640 650
    MWLFFGCRHK DRDYLFRKEL RHFLKHGILT HLKVSFSRDA PVGEEEAPAK
    660 670 680 690 700
    YVQDNIQLHG QQVARILLQE NGHIYVCGDA KNMAKDVHDA LVQIISKEVG
    710 720
    VEKLEAMKTL ATLKEEKRYL QDIWS
    Length:725
    Mass (Da):80,410
    Last modified:May 18, 2010 - v3
    Checksum:iC3EF82DAC388BAF1
    GO
    Isoform B (identifier: Q9UBK8-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         1-27: Missing.

    Show »
    Length:698
    Mass (Da):77,674
    Checksum:iD4B394F0B24A07E5
    GO
    Isoform C (identifier: Q9UBK8-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         1-27: Missing.
         71-85: YDLKTETAPLVVVVS → VSVIQNTPTFAMGGR
         86-725: Missing.

    Show »
    Length:58
    Mass (Da):6,368
    Checksum:i5FDB3101DE6A9453
    GO

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Natural variantiVAR_01283649I → M Polymorphism; may increase risk for spina bifida. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1801394Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_01283781Missing in HMAE. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_01283883V → M in HMAE. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs761061866Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_012839156A → T in HMAE. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_034595202S → LCombined sources3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1532268Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_034596284S → T. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs2303080Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_012840360L → V1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs10064631Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_034597377K → R1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs162036Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_012841432C → R in HMAE. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_034598442R → C. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs2287780Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_034599477P → R. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs16879334Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_012842514G → R in HMAE. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs137853061Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_056947542A → V. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs16879355Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_015731581G → R in HMAE. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_012843603Missing in HMAE. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_014944622H → Y. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs10380Ensembl.1

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Alternative sequenceiVSP_0039101 – 27Missing in isoform B and isoform C. 3 PublicationsAdd BLAST27
    Alternative sequenceiVSP_00391171 – 85YDLKT…VVVVS → VSVIQNTPTFAMGGR in isoform C. 2 PublicationsAdd BLAST15
    Alternative sequenceiVSP_00391286 – 725Missing in isoform C. 2 PublicationsAdd BLAST640

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF121213
    , AF121202, AF121203, AF121204, AF121205, AF121206, AF121207, AF121208, AF121209, AF121210, AF121211, AF121212 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF17303.1
    AF121214 mRNA Translation: AAF16876.1
    AF121213
    , AF121202, AF121203, AF121204, AF121205, AF121206, AF121207, AF121208, AF121209, AF121210, AF121211, AF121212 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF17304.1
    AF025794 mRNA Translation: AAC39667.1
    AC010346 Genomic DNA No translation available.
    AC025174 Genomic DNA No translation available.
    BC054816 mRNA Translation: AAH54816.2
    BC109216 mRNA Translation: AAI09217.1
    CCDSiCCDS3874.1 [Q9UBK8-1]
    CCDS47190.1 [Q9UBK8-2]
    RefSeqiNP_002445.2, NM_002454.2 [Q9UBK8-2]
    NP_076915.2, NM_024010.2 [Q9UBK8-1]
    UniGeneiHs.481551

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000264668; ENSP00000264668; ENSG00000124275 [Q9UBK8-1]
    ENST00000440940; ENSP00000402510; ENSG00000124275 [Q9UBK8-2]
    ENST00000510279; ENSP00000427200; ENSG00000124275 [Q9UBK8-3]
    ENST00000514369; ENSP00000426132; ENSG00000124275 [Q9UBK8-3]
    GeneIDi4552
    KEGGihsa:4552
    UCSCiuc003jed.4 human [Q9UBK8-1]

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

    Similar proteinsi

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiMTRR_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9UBK8
    Secondary accession number(s): O60471, Q32MA9, Q7Z4M8
    Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 27, 2002
    Last sequence update: May 18, 2010
    Last modified: June 20, 2018
    This is version 177 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome 5
      Human chromosome 5: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    4. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    5. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    6. Protein Spotlight
      Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

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