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Protein

Appetite-regulating hormone

Gene

Ghrl

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation.
Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility.

Caution

PubMed:16284174 reports obestatin as ligand of GPR39. However, PubMed:17289961 and others are unable to reproduce these results. It also seems to be unclear whether obestatin has opposite effects on food intake compared with ghrelin.Curated

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • ghrelin receptor binding Source: RGD
  • G protein-coupled receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • growth hormone-releasing hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • hormone activity Source: RGD
  • protein tyrosine kinase activator activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionHormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-RNO-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-RNO-422085 Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Appetite-regulating hormone
Alternative name(s):
Growth hormone secretagogue
Growth hormone-releasing peptide
Motilin-related peptide
Cleaved into the following 3 chains:
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:Ghrl
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

Rat genome database

More...
RGDi
632283 Ghrl

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 232 PublicationsAdd BLAST23
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the position and length of an active peptide in the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/peptide' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PeptideiPRO_000001920924 – 51GhrelinAdd BLAST28
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section describes a propeptide, which is a part of a protein that is cleaved during maturation or activation. Once cleaved, a propeptide generally has no independent biological function.<p><a href='/help/propep' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PropeptideiPRO_000001921052 – 75Removed in mature form1 PublicationAdd BLAST24
PeptideiPRO_000004514676 – 98Obestatin-23Add BLAST23
PeptideiPRO_000004514786 – 98Obestatin-13CuratedAdd BLAST13
PropeptideiPRO_000004514899 – 117Removed in mature formAdd BLAST19

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position(s) and the type of covalently attached lipid group(s).<p><a href='/help/lipid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Lipidationi26O-octanoyl serine2 Publications1
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei98Leucine amide1 Publication1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

O-octanoylation is essential for ghrelin activity. The replacement of Ser-26 by aromatic tryptophan preserves ghrelin activity (PubMed:10604470, PubMed:10801861).2 Publications
Amidation of Leu-98 is essential for obestatin activity.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Lipoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q9QYH7

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
Q9QYH7

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
Q9QYH7

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

More...
PhosphoSitePlusi
Q9QYH7

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Ghrelin is broadly expressed with higher expression in the stomach. Very low levels are detected in the hypothalamus, heart, lung, pancreas, intestine and adipose tissue. Obestatin is most highly expressed in jejunum, and also found in duodenum, stomach, pituitary, ileum, liver, hypothalamus and heart. Expressed in low levels in pancreas, cerebellum, cerebrum, kidney, testis, ovary colon and lung.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSRNOG00000010349 Expressed in 9 organ(s), highest expression level in colon

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
Q9QYH7 RN

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
10116.ENSRNOP00000014103

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the motilin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG410IZYV Eukaryota
ENOG410ZG1B LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00390000004064

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000236303

The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

More...
HOVERGENi
HBG018522

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q9QYH7

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K05254

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
EIQFNAP

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
EOG091G0YG0

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q9QYH7

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF336219

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR006737 Motilin_assoc
IPR006738 Motilin_ghrelin
IPR005441 Preproghrelin

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR14122 PTHR14122, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF04643 Motilin_assoc, 1 hit
PF04644 Motilin_ghrelin, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR01624 GHRELIN

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket
Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9QYH7-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: Ghrelin

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MVSSATICSL LLLSMLWMDM AMAGSSFLSP EHQKAQQRKE SKKPPAKLQP
60 70 80 90 100
RALEGWLHPE DRGQAEEAEE ELEIRFNAPF DVGIKLSGAQ YQQHGRALGK
110
FLQDILWEEV KEAPANK
Length:117
Mass (Da):13,176
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i8857546FE51A7691
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9QYH7-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: des-Gln14-ghrelin

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     37-37: Missing.

Show »
Length:116
Mass (Da):13,048
Checksum:i88544ECA032C24F2
GO

<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports information derived from mass spectrometry experiments done on the entire protein or on biologically active derived peptide(s).<p><a href='/help/mass_spectrometry' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mass spectrometryi

Isoform 1 : Molecular mass is 3314.9±0.7 Da from positions 24 - 51. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication
Isoform 2 : Molecular mass is 3187.1±0.6 Da from positions 24 - 50. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 2516.3 Da from positions 76 - 98. 1 Publication

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting. The information stored in this subsection is used to automatically construct alternative protein sequence(s) for display.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_00324837Missing in isoform 2. 1 Publication1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB029433 mRNA Translation: BAA89370.1
AB035699 mRNA Translation: BAB11956.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
B59316

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_067701.1, NM_021669.2 [Q9QYH7-1]

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

More...
UniGenei
Rn.42103

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENSRNOT00000014103; ENSRNOP00000014103; ENSRNOG00000010349 [Q9QYH7-1]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
59301

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
rno:59301

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
RGD:632283 rat [Q9QYH7-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross_references_section">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

Protein Spotlight

Gut feelings - Issue 66 of January 2006

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB029433 mRNA Translation: BAA89370.1
AB035699 mRNA Translation: BAB11956.1
PIRiB59316
RefSeqiNP_067701.1, NM_021669.2 [Q9QYH7-1]
UniGeneiRn.42103

3D structure databases

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000014103

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9QYH7
PhosphoSitePlusiQ9QYH7

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9QYH7
PRIDEiQ9QYH7

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000014103; ENSRNOP00000014103; ENSRNOG00000010349 [Q9QYH7-1]
GeneIDi59301
KEGGirno:59301
UCSCiRGD:632283 rat [Q9QYH7-1]

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
51738
RGDi632283 Ghrl

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IZYV Eukaryota
ENOG410ZG1B LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004064
HOGENOMiHOG000236303
HOVERGENiHBG018522
InParanoidiQ9QYH7
KOiK05254
OMAiEIQFNAP
OrthoDBiEOG091G0YG0
PhylomeDBiQ9QYH7
TreeFamiTF336219

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-RNO-422085 Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q9QYH7

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000010349 Expressed in 9 organ(s), highest expression level in colon
GenevisibleiQ9QYH7 RN

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR006737 Motilin_assoc
IPR006738 Motilin_ghrelin
IPR005441 Preproghrelin
PANTHERiPTHR14122 PTHR14122, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF04643 Motilin_assoc, 1 hit
PF04644 Motilin_ghrelin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01624 GHRELIN

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGHRL_RAT
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9QYH7
Secondary accession number(s): Q9ET69
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 13, 2001
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: November 7, 2018
This is version 134 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
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