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Entry version 75 (02 Jun 2021)
Sequence version 1 (01 May 2000)
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Protein

Crotamine

Gene

CRO2

Organism
Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Cationic peptide that possesses multiple functions. It acts as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), and as a potent voltage-gated potassium channel inhibitor. It exhibits antimicrobial activities, hind limb paralysis, and severe muscle necrosis by a non-enzymatic mechanism. As a cell-penetrating peptide, crotamine has high specificity for actively proliferating cells, and interacts inside the cell with subcellular and subnuclear structures, like vesicular compartments, chromosomes and centrioles. It penetrates into the cells as fast as five minutes after its addition to cell culture medium (PubMed:18662711).

In vivo, after intraperitoneal administration, it is found in cells of peritoneal fluid and bone marrow, demonstrating preferential nuclear and perinuclear localization. To enter the cell, it interacts with the chains of heparan sulfate membrane proteoglycan (HSPG), and is endocytosed (in complex with HSPG) in vesicles which are transported into the cell with the help of clathrin. Inside the cell, crotamine accumulates in lysosomal vesicles. As soon as the peptide accumulates in endosomes/lysosomes vesicles, these compartments are disrupted and their contents released into the cytosol. This loss of lysosomal content induces cell death at high concentrations, or promotes the distribution of crotamine in cytoplasmic compartments, which is a step before crotamine nuclear uptake (PubMed:15231729, PubMed:17491023).

As a potassium channel inhibitor, this toxin selectively inhibits Kv1.1/KCNA1, Kv1.2/KCNA2 and Kv1.3/KCNA3 channels with an IC50 of 369, 386 and 287 nM, respectively (PubMed:22498659).

The inhibition of Kv1.3/KCNA channels induced by this toxin occurs rapidly and is voltage-independent. The channel inhibition is reversible after washing, suggesting a pure and classical channel blockage effect, without effects in potassium channel kinetics (PubMed:22498659).

As an antimicrobial peptide, crotamine shows antibacterial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis, and antifungal activity against Candida spp., Trichosporon spp. and C.neoformans. It kills bacteria through membrane permeabilization.

12 Publications

Miscellaneous

Has no hemolytic activity (PubMed:21386851, PubMed:23022146). Has low harmful effects on normal mammal cells. Does not show activity against the filamentous fungi A.fumigatus and T.rubrum at concentrations up to 125 µg/mL (PubMed:23022146). Does not directly affect voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.1/SCN1A, Nav1.2/SCN2A, Nav1.3/SCN3A, Nav1.4/SCN4A, Nav1.5/SCN5A and Nav1.6/SCN8A (PubMed:17588630).3 Publications

Caution

The analgesic activity produced by crotamine in Mancin et al., 1998 may be a misinterpretation (PubMed:9839677). This activity is probably due to the co-elution with the 14 amino acids crotalphine peptide (AC P08878). In that article crotamine was purified uniquely by gel filtration G-75. This single chromatographic step without going through a RP-HPLC is not sufficient to separate crotamine from other low molecular weight peptides such as the potent analgesic crotalphine peptide.Curated
Studies have shown that crotamine is present in the venom of certain specimens of C.durissus terrificus, and absent in others. This is due to geographical variations (PubMed:10484745).1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections ('Function', 'PTM / Processing', 'Pathology and Biotech') according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei23Involved in the interaction surface toward KvCurated1
Sitei24Involved in the interaction surface toward KvCurated1
Sitei55Involved in the interaction surface toward KvCurated1
Sitei56Involved in the interaction surface toward KvCurated1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionAntibiotic, Antimicrobial, Fungicide, Ion channel impairing toxin, Myotoxin, Neurotoxin, Potassium channel impairing toxin, Toxin, Voltage-gated potassium channel impairing toxin

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Crotamine1 Publication
Short name:
Crt
Alternative name(s):
Myotoxin
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:CRO2
Synonyms:CRT-P1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiCrotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri8732 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiLepidosauriaSquamataBifurcataUnidentataEpisquamataToxicoferaSerpentesColubroideaViperidaeCrotalinaeCrotalus

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology%5Fand%5Fbiotech%5Fsection">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the lethal dose (LD), paralytic dose (PD), effect dose (ED) or lethal concentration (LC) of a protein toxin.<p><a href='/help/toxic_dose' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Toxic dosei

LD50 is 1.5 mg/kg by intravenous injection.1 Publication
LD50 is 32.8 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection into mice.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the use of a protein as a pharmaceutical drug. It indicates the name of the drug, the name of the firm that commercializes it and explains in a few words in which context the drug is used. In some cases, drugs that are under development are also described.<p><a href='/help/pharmaceutical_use' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pharmaceutical usei

Has high potential for use as an anticancer agent. In vivo treatment with this protein significantly delays tumor implantation, inhibits tumor growth and prolongs the lifespan of the mice with melanoma tumors. It has also potent and specific toxicity against tumor cell lines of aggressive mouse and human tumors, but low cytotoxicity against non-tumoral cell lines. In addition, this protein can act as a carrier capable of delivering DNA into replicating cells with low cytotoxicity against normal proliferative cells (PubMed:21062230, PubMed:22142367, and PubMed:21834748).

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 221 PublicationAdd BLAST22
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000003518423 – 64Crotamine1 PublicationAdd BLAST42

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi26 ↔ 582 PublicationsImported
Disulfide bondi33 ↔ 522 PublicationsImported
Disulfide bondi40 ↔ 592 PublicationsImported

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at protein level'.<br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed by the venom gland.1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Monomer.

By similarity

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

165
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank

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BMRBi
Q9PWF3

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
Q9PWF3

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

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PDBe-KBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi24 – 40Nuclear localization signalAdd BLAST17
Motifi49 – 61Nuclear localization signalAdd BLAST13

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the crotamine-myotoxin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
2.20.20.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR023355, Myo_ane_neurotoxin_sf
IPR000881, Myotoxin

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00819, Myotoxins, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

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PRINTSi
PR00283, MYOTOXIN

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00459, MYOTOXINS_1, 1 hit
PS51345, MYOTOXINS_2, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9PWF3-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MKILYLLFAF LFLAFLSEPG NAYKQCHKKG GHCFPKEKIC LPPSSDFGKM
60
DCRWRWKCCK KGSGK
Length:65
Mass (Da):7,519
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iFD109153C5BCCE33
GO

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports information derived from mass spectrometry experiments done on the entire protein or on biologically active derived peptide(s).<p><a href='/help/mass_spectrometry' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 4885.6 Da. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF053075 mRNA Translation: AAC06241.1
AF223946 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF34910.1
AF223947 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF34911.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A01735, CXRSMT

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross%5Freferences%5Fsection">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

Wikipedia

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF053075 mRNA Translation: AAC06241.1
AF223946 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF34910.1
AF223947 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF34911.1
PIRiA01735, CXRSMT

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

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RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

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PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1H5ONMR-A23-64[»]
1Z99NMR-A23-64[»]
BMRBiQ9PWF3
SMRiQ9PWF3
ModBaseiSearch...
PDBe-KBiSearch...

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.20.20.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR023355, Myo_ane_neurotoxin_sf
IPR000881, Myotoxin
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00819, Myotoxins, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00283, MYOTOXIN
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00459, MYOTOXINS_1, 1 hit
PS51345, MYOTOXINS_2, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

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MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiMYC2_CRODU
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9PWF3
Secondary accession number(s): P01475
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: September 27, 2004
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: June 2, 2021
This is version 75 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
Annotation programAnimal Toxin Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing, Pharmaceutical

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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