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Protein

Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial

Gene

GLRX2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and regulation of apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Acts as a very efficient catalyst of monothiol reactions because of its high affinity for protein glutathione-mixed disulfides. Can receive electrons not only from glutathione (GSH), but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions. Efficiently catalyzes both glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of mitochondrial complex I, which in turn regulates the superoxide production by the complex. Overexpression decreases the susceptibility to apoptosis and prevents loss of cardiolipin and cytochrome c release.4 Publications

Miscellaneous

The absence of GLRX2 dramatically sensitizes cells to cell death induced by doxorubicin/adriamycin and phenylarsine oxide.

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

The 2Fe-2S present in the homodimer leads to inactivation of the enzyme. The 2Fe-2S may serve as a redox sensor: the presence of one-electron oxidants or reductants leading to the loss of the 2Fe-2S cluster, subsequent monomerization and activation of the enzyme. Unlike other glutaredoxins, it is not inhibited by oxidation of structural Cys residues.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=5.9 mM for GSH1 Publication
  2. KM=0.77 mM for glutathionylated ribonuclease A1 Publication
  3. KM=4.3 mM for glutathionylated BSA1 Publication
  4. KM=0.11 mM for glutathionylated beta-mercaptoethanol1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the ‘Description’ field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi68Iron-sulfur (2Fe-2S); shared with dimeric partner; in inactive formCurated1
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei74Glutathione1 Publication1
    Binding sitei109Glutathione1 Publication1
    Binding sitei121Glutathione; via amide nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen1 Publication1
    Metal bindingi153Iron-sulfur (2Fe-2S); shared with dimeric partner; in inactive formCurated1

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Biological processElectron transport, Transport
    Ligand2Fe-2S, Iron, Iron-sulfur, Metal-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

    More...
    SABIO-RKi
    Q9NS18

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:GLRX2
    Synonyms:GRX2
    ORF Names:CGI-133
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
    • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 1

    Organism-specific databases

    Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources

    More...
    EuPathDBi
    HostDB:ENSG00000023572.8

    Human Gene Nomenclature Database

    More...
    HGNCi
    HGNC:16065 GLRX2

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

    More...
    MIMi
    606820 gene

    neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

    More...
    neXtProti
    NX_Q9NS18

    <p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

    Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Mitochondrion, Nucleus

    <p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology_and_biotech_section">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi68C → S: Abolishes absorption at 320 nm and 420 nm suggesting the loss of 2Fe-2S-binding. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi78S → P: Specifically increases the specific activity but decreases affinity for glutathionylated substrates. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi80C → S: Strongly impairs enzymatic activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi153C → S: Abolishes absorption at 320 nm and 420 nm suggesting the loss of 2Fe-2S-binding. 1 Publication1

    Organism-specific databases

    DisGeNET

    More...
    DisGeNETi
    51022

    Open Targets

    More...
    OpenTargetsi
    ENSG00000023572

    The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

    More...
    PharmGKBi
    PA28732

    Chemistry databases

    Drug and drug target database

    More...
    DrugBanki
    DB00143 Glutathione

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

    More...
    BioMutai
    GLRX2

    Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

    More...
    DMDMi
    73919686

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a transit peptide.<p><a href='/help/transit' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transit peptidei1 – 19MitochondrionSequence analysisAdd BLAST19
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000001162820 – 164Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrialAdd BLAST145

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei20PhosphoserineCombined sources1
    <p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi77 ↔ 80Redox-active; alternateBy similarity
    Modified residuei77S-glutathionyl cysteine; alternate1 Publication1

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond, Glutathionylation, Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

    More...
    EPDi
    Q9NS18

    jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

    More...
    jPOSTi
    Q9NS18

    MaxQB - The MaxQuant DataBase

    More...
    MaxQBi
    Q9NS18

    PeptideAtlas

    More...
    PeptideAtlasi
    Q9NS18

    PRoteomics IDEntifications database

    More...
    PRIDEi
    Q9NS18

    ProteomicsDB human proteome resource

    More...
    ProteomicsDBi
    82463
    82464 [Q9NS18-2]

    PTM databases

    iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

    More...
    iPTMneti
    Q9NS18

    Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

    More...
    PhosphoSitePlusi
    Q9NS18

    <p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

    Widely expressed. Expressed in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, colon, thymus, spleen, kidney, liver, small intestine, placenta and lung. Not expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes.3 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

    More...
    Bgeei
    ENSG00000023572 Expressed in 229 organ(s), highest expression level in sperm

    CleanEx database of gene expression profiles

    More...
    CleanExi
    HS_GLRX2

    Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

    More...
    Genevisiblei
    Q9NS18 HS

    Organism-specific databases

    Human Protein Atlas

    More...
    HPAi
    HPA023087
    HPA057224

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

    Monomer; active form. Homodimer; inactive form. The homodimer is probably linked by 1 2Fe-2S cluster.2 Publications

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

    More...
    BioGridi
    119228, 7 interactors

    Protein interaction database and analysis system

    More...
    IntActi
    Q9NS18, 4 interactors

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1164
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:

    Protein Data Bank Europe

    More...
    PDBei

    Protein Data Bank RCSB

    More...
    RCSB PDBi

    Protein Data Bank Japan

    More...
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    2CQ9NMR-A48-164[»]
    2FLSX-ray2.05A56-164[»]
    2HT9X-ray1.90A/B41-164[»]

    Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

    More...
    ProteinModelPortali
    Q9NS18

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    Q9NS18

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    Miscellaneous databases

    Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

    More...
    EvolutionaryTracei
    Q9NS18

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family_and_domains_section">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini57 – 157GlutaredoxinPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST101

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the glutaredoxin family.Curated

    Keywords - Domaini

    Redox-active center, Transit peptide

    Phylogenomic databases

    Ensembl GeneTree

    More...
    GeneTreei
    ENSGT00940000162420

    The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

    More...
    HOGENOMi
    HOG000095204

    The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

    More...
    HOVERGENi
    HBG096801

    InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

    More...
    InParanoidi
    Q9NS18

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K03676

    Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

    More...
    OMAi
    PRCFING

    Database of Orthologous Groups

    More...
    OrthoDBi
    1535999at2759

    Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

    More...
    PhylomeDBi
    Q9NS18

    TreeFam database of animal gene trees

    More...
    TreeFami
    TF319627

    Family and domain databases

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR002109 Glutaredoxin
    IPR011899 Glutaredoxin_euk/vir
    IPR014025 Glutaredoxin_subgr
    IPR036249 Thioredoxin-like_sf

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF00462 Glutaredoxin, 1 hit

    Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

    More...
    PRINTSi
    PR00160 GLUTAREDOXIN

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    More...
    SUPFAMi
    SSF52833 SSF52833, 1 hit

    TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

    More...
    TIGRFAMsi
    TIGR02180 GRX_euk, 1 hit

    PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

    More...
    PROSITEi
    View protein in PROSITE
    PS51354 GLUTAREDOXIN_2, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2)i

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket
    Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9NS18-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    Also known as: Grx2a

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MIWRRAALAG TRLVWSRSGS AGWLDRAAGA AGAAAAAASG MESNTSSSLE
    60 70 80 90 100
    NLATAPVNQI QETISDNCVV IFSKTSCSYC TMAKKLFHDM NVNYKVVELD
    110 120 130 140 150
    LLEYGNQFQD ALYKMTGERT VPRIFVNGTF IGGATDTHRL HKEGKLLPLV
    160
    HQCYLKKSKR KEFQ
    Length:164
    Mass (Da):18,052
    Last modified:October 1, 2000 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iD9798A01BB532A5D
    GO
    Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9NS18-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    Also known as: Grx2b

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         1-40: MIWRRAALAG...AGAAAAAASG → MNPRDKQVSR...PGRTRSAARR

    Show »
    Length:165
    Mass (Da):18,726
    Checksum:iD4A1F78015B516D4
    GO

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

    The sequence AAD34128 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at several positions.Curated
    The sequence AAH28113 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation.Curated

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_02523495K → E1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs34237236Ensembl.1
    Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9NS18-2)
    Natural varianti40R → W. 1

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting. The information stored in this subsection is used to automatically construct alternative protein sequence(s) for display.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_0152211 – 40MIWRR…AAASG → MNPRDKQVSRFSPLKDVYTW VALAGIQRSGSPGRTRSAAR R in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST40

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF132495 mRNA Translation: AAF37320.2
    AF290514 mRNA Translation: AAK83089.1
    AY038988 mRNA Translation: AAK72499.1
    DQ194815 Genomic DNA Translation: ABA03170.1
    AL136370 Genomic DNA No translation available.
    AF151891 mRNA Translation: AAD34128.1 Frameshift.
    BC028113 mRNA Translation: AAH28113.1 Different initiation.

    The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

    More...
    CCDSi
    CCDS1380.1 [Q9NS18-2]
    CCDS1381.1 [Q9NS18-1]

    NCBI Reference Sequences

    More...
    RefSeqi
    NP_001230328.1, NM_001243399.1
    NP_001306220.1, NM_001319291.1
    NP_057150.2, NM_016066.4 [Q9NS18-2]
    NP_932066.1, NM_197962.2 [Q9NS18-1]
    XP_016856886.1, XM_017001397.1

    UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

    More...
    UniGenei
    Hs.458283

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

    More...
    Ensembli
    ENST00000367439; ENSP00000356409; ENSG00000023572 [Q9NS18-1]
    ENST00000367440; ENSP00000356410; ENSG00000023572 [Q9NS18-2]
    ENST00000608166; ENSP00000494652; ENSG00000023572 [Q9NS18-1]

    Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    More...
    GeneIDi
    51022

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    hsa:51022

    UCSC genome browser

    More...
    UCSCi
    uc001gsz.3 human [Q9NS18-1]

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross_references_section">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

    NIEHS-SNPs

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF132495 mRNA Translation: AAF37320.2
    AF290514 mRNA Translation: AAK83089.1
    AY038988 mRNA Translation: AAK72499.1
    DQ194815 Genomic DNA Translation: ABA03170.1
    AL136370 Genomic DNA No translation available.
    AF151891 mRNA Translation: AAD34128.1 Frameshift.
    BC028113 mRNA Translation: AAH28113.1 Different initiation.
    CCDSiCCDS1380.1 [Q9NS18-2]
    CCDS1381.1 [Q9NS18-1]
    RefSeqiNP_001230328.1, NM_001243399.1
    NP_001306220.1, NM_001319291.1
    NP_057150.2, NM_016066.4 [Q9NS18-2]
    NP_932066.1, NM_197962.2 [Q9NS18-1]
    XP_016856886.1, XM_017001397.1
    UniGeneiHs.458283

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    2CQ9NMR-A48-164[»]
    2FLSX-ray2.05A56-164[»]
    2HT9X-ray1.90A/B41-164[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ9NS18
    SMRiQ9NS18
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi119228, 7 interactors
    IntActiQ9NS18, 4 interactors

    Chemistry databases

    DrugBankiDB00143 Glutathione

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiQ9NS18
    PhosphoSitePlusiQ9NS18

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMutaiGLRX2
    DMDMi73919686

    Proteomic databases

    EPDiQ9NS18
    jPOSTiQ9NS18
    MaxQBiQ9NS18
    PeptideAtlasiQ9NS18
    PRIDEiQ9NS18
    ProteomicsDBi82463
    82464 [Q9NS18-2]

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000367439; ENSP00000356409; ENSG00000023572 [Q9NS18-1]
    ENST00000367440; ENSP00000356410; ENSG00000023572 [Q9NS18-2]
    ENST00000608166; ENSP00000494652; ENSG00000023572 [Q9NS18-1]
    GeneIDi51022
    KEGGihsa:51022
    UCSCiuc001gsz.3 human [Q9NS18-1]

    Organism-specific databases

    Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

    More...
    CTDi
    51022
    DisGeNETi51022
    EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000023572.8

    GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

    More...
    GeneCardsi
    GLRX2
    HGNCiHGNC:16065 GLRX2
    HPAiHPA023087
    HPA057224
    MIMi606820 gene
    neXtProtiNX_Q9NS18
    OpenTargetsiENSG00000023572
    PharmGKBiPA28732

    GenAtlas: human gene database

    More...
    GenAtlasi
    Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    GeneTreeiENSGT00940000162420
    HOGENOMiHOG000095204
    HOVERGENiHBG096801
    InParanoidiQ9NS18
    KOiK03676
    OMAiPRCFING
    OrthoDBi1535999at2759
    PhylomeDBiQ9NS18
    TreeFamiTF319627

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    SABIO-RKiQ9NS18

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

    More...
    ChiTaRSi
    GLRX2 human
    EvolutionaryTraceiQ9NS18

    The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

    More...
    GeneWikii
    GLRX2

    Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

    More...
    GenomeRNAii
    51022

    Protein Ontology

    More...
    PROi
    PR:Q9NS18

    The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

    More...
    SOURCEi
    Search...

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiENSG00000023572 Expressed in 229 organ(s), highest expression level in sperm
    CleanExiHS_GLRX2
    GenevisibleiQ9NS18 HS

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR002109 Glutaredoxin
    IPR011899 Glutaredoxin_euk/vir
    IPR014025 Glutaredoxin_subgr
    IPR036249 Thioredoxin-like_sf
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF00462 Glutaredoxin, 1 hit
    PRINTSiPR00160 GLUTAREDOXIN
    SUPFAMiSSF52833 SSF52833, 1 hit
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR02180 GRX_euk, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS51354 GLUTAREDOXIN_2, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGLRX2_HUMAN
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9NS18
    Secondary accession number(s): Q3LR69
    , Q7L1N7, Q96JC0, Q9Y3D4
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 30, 2005
    Last sequence update: October 1, 2000
    Last modified: January 16, 2019
    This is version 160 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
    2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    4. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    5. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    6. Human chromosome 1
      Human chromosome 1: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
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