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Entry version 120 (10 Feb 2021)
Sequence version 1 (01 Oct 2000)
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Protein

9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase NCED3, chloroplastic

Gene

NCED3

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Has a 11,12(11',12') 9-cis epoxycarotenoid cleavage activity. Catalyzes the first step of abscisic-acid biosynthesis from carotenoids, in response to water stress.2 Publications

Miscellaneous

Overexpression of NCED3 results in increased accumulation of abscisic acid and resistance to water stress.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Fe2+By similarityNote: Binds 1 Fe2+ ion per subunit.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Inhibited by abamine and abamineSG.2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: abscisate biosynthesis

This protein is involved in the pathway abscisate biosynthesis, which is part of Plant hormone biosynthesis.2 Publications
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway abscisate biosynthesis and in Plant hormone biosynthesis.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi297Iron; via tele nitrogenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi346Iron; via tele nitrogenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi411Iron; via tele nitrogenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi585Iron; via tele nitrogenBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionDioxygenase, Oxidoreductase
Biological processAbscisic acid biosynthesis, Stress response
LigandIron, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
ARA:AT3G14440-MONOMER
MetaCyc:AT3G14440-MONOMER

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

More...
BRENDAi
1.13.11.51, 399

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00090

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase NCED3, chloroplastic1 Publication (EC:1.13.11.512 Publications)
Short name:
AtNCED31 Publication
Alternative name(s):
Protein SALT TOLERANT 11 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:NCED31 Publication
Synonyms:STO11 Publication
Ordered Locus Names:At3g14440Imported
ORF Names:MOA2.4Imported
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliopsidaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

Arabidopsis Information Portal

More...
Araporti
AT3G14440

The Arabidopsis Information Resource

More...
TAIRi
locus:2091652, AT3G14440

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chloroplast, Plastid

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Plants show enhanced germination on salt and hypersensitivity to desication and LiCl.1 Publication

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a transit peptide.<p><a href='/help/transit' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transit peptidei1 – 40ChloroplastSequence analysisAdd BLAST40
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000028599141 – 5999-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase NCED3, chloroplasticAdd BLAST559

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q9LRR7

ProteomicsDB: a multi-organism proteome resource

More...
ProteomicsDBi
251317

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at protein level'.<br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Localized in roots, leaves, stems, empty silique envelopes and seeds. Expressed at the point of organ attachment and the abscission zones in the plant.3 Publications

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

By salt or drought stress and pathogen.4 Publications

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

More...
ExpressionAtlasi
Q9LRR7, baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
Q9LRR7, AT

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

More...
BioGRIDi
6001, 1 interactor

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
3702.AT3G14440.1

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q9LRR7

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Compositional biasi92 – 96Poly-AlaSequence analysis5

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the carotenoid oxygenase family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG1285, Eukaryota

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_016472_0_0_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q9LRR7

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
KEDGPPF

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
524712at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q9LRR7

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR004294, Carotenoid_Oase

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR10543, PTHR10543, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF03055, RPE65, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9LRR7-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MASFTATAAV SGRWLGGNHT QPPLSSSQSS DLSYCSSLPM ASRVTRKLNV
60 70 80 90 100
SSALHTPPAL HFPKQSSNSP AIVVKPKAKE SNTKQMNLFQ RAAAAALDAA
110 120 130 140 150
EGFLVSHEKL HPLPKTADPS VQIAGNFAPV NEQPVRRNLP VVGKLPDSIK
160 170 180 190 200
GVYVRNGANP LHEPVTGHHF FDGDGMVHAV KFEHGSASYA CRFTQTNRFV
210 220 230 240 250
QERQLGRPVF PKAIGELHGH TGIARLMLFY ARAAAGIVDP AHGTGVANAG
260 270 280 290 300
LVYFNGRLLA MSEDDLPYQV QITPNGDLKT VGRFDFDGQL ESTMIAHPKV
310 320 330 340 350
DPESGELFAL SYDVVSKPYL KYFRFSPDGT KSPDVEIQLD QPTMMHDFAI
360 370 380 390 400
TENFVVVPDQ QVVFKLPEMI RGGSPVVYDK NKVARFGILD KYAEDSSNIK
410 420 430 440 450
WIDAPDCFCF HLWNAWEEPE TDEVVVIGSC MTPPDSIFNE SDENLKSVLS
460 470 480 490 500
EIRLNLKTGE STRRPIISNE DQQVNLEAGM VNRNMLGRKT KFAYLALAEP
510 520 530 540 550
WPKVSGFAKV DLTTGEVKKH LYGDNRYGGE PLFLPGEGGE EDEGYILCFV
560 570 580 590
HDEKTWKSEL QIVNAVSLEV EATVKLPSRV PYGFHGTFIG ADDLAKQVV
Length:599
Mass (Da):65,857
Last modified:October 1, 2000 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i7D513F39945E0CF3
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti371R → L in AAL07104 (PubMed:14593172).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB026549 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB70609.1
AB028617 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB01336.1
CP002686 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE75526.1
AY056255 mRNA Translation: AAL07104.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_188062.1, NM_112304.3

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl plant genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblPlantsi
AT3G14440.1; AT3G14440.1; AT3G14440

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
820667

Gramene; a comparative resource for plants

More...
Gramenei
AT3G14440.1; AT3G14440.1; AT3G14440

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ath:AT3G14440

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB026549 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB70609.1
AB028617 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB01336.1
CP002686 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE75526.1
AY056255 mRNA Translation: AAL07104.1
RefSeqiNP_188062.1, NM_112304.3

3D structure databases

SMRiQ9LRR7
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi6001, 1 interactor
STRINGi3702.AT3G14440.1

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9LRR7
ProteomicsDBi251317

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G14440.1; AT3G14440.1; AT3G14440
GeneIDi820667
GrameneiAT3G14440.1; AT3G14440.1; AT3G14440
KEGGiath:AT3G14440

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT3G14440
TAIRilocus:2091652, AT3G14440

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1285, Eukaryota
HOGENOMiCLU_016472_0_0_1
InParanoidiQ9LRR7
OMAiKEDGPPF
OrthoDBi524712at2759
PhylomeDBiQ9LRR7

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00090
BioCyciARA:AT3G14440-MONOMER
MetaCyc:AT3G14440-MONOMER
BRENDAi1.13.11.51, 399

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q9LRR7

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ9LRR7, baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ9LRR7, AT

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR004294, Carotenoid_Oase
PANTHERiPTHR10543, PTHR10543, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF03055, RPE65, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiNCED3_ARATH
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9LRR7
Secondary accession number(s): Q93ZU5
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 1, 2007
Last sequence update: October 1, 2000
Last modified: February 10, 2021
This is version 120 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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