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Entry version 47 (07 Apr 2021)
Sequence version 1 (01 Oct 2000)
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Protein

Phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligase

Gene

paaK

Organism
Aromatoleum evansii (Azoarcus evansii)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the activation of phenylacetic acid (PA) to phenylacetyl-CoA (PA-CoA). Involved in the phenylalanine metabolism.2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Inhibition of activity is observed in the presence of a 1 mM of the divalent cations zinc, copper, and nickel.

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=14 µM for PA (aerobically at 37 degrees Celsius)2 Publications
  2. KM=45 µM for CoA (aerobically at 37 degrees Celsius)2 Publications
  3. KM=60 µM for ATP (aerobically at 37 degrees Celsius)2 Publications

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is between 8 and 8.5, with a dramatic drop of activity (55%) at pH 9. Less than 10% activity is observed a pH 6, and half the maximal activity is measured at pH 7.2 Publications

    Temperature dependencei

    Optimum temperature is 37 degrees Celsius. The enzyme is extremely labile, and the activity is totally lost within 48 h at 4 degrees Celsius.2 Publications

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: phenylacetate degradation

    This protein is involved in the pathway phenylacetate degradation, which is part of Aromatic compound metabolism.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway phenylacetate degradation and in Aromatic compound metabolism.

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB
    • phenylacetate-CoA ligase activity Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    • phenylacetate catabolic process Source: UniProtKB

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionLigase
    LigandATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    More...
    BioCyci
    MetaCyc:MONOMER-12132

    SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

    More...
    SABIO-RKi
    Q9L9C1

    UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

    More...
    UniPathwayi
    UPA00930

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligase (EC:6.2.1.30)
    Alternative name(s):
    Phenylacetyl-CoA ligase
    Short name:
    PA-CoA ligase
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:paaK
    Synonyms:pacD
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiAromatoleum evansii (Azoarcus evansii)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri59406 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaBetaproteobacteriaRhodocyclalesRhodocyclaceaeAromatoleum

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004167731 – 440Phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligaseAdd BLAST440

    <p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

    <p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

    Induced by phenylacetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylalanine, phenylbutyric acid, DL-phenyllactate, phenylpyruvate, or 4-phenylbutyrate.2 Publications

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

    Monomer.

    1 Publication

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    3D structure databases

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    Q9L9C1

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the phenylacetyl-CoA ligase family.Curated

    Family and domain databases

    Conserved Domains Database

    More...
    CDDi
    cd05913, PaaK, 1 hit

    Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

    More...
    Gene3Di
    3.40.50.12780, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR028154, AMP-dep_Lig_C
    IPR000873, AMP-dep_Synth/Lig
    IPR042099, AMP-dep_Synthh-like_sf
    IPR011880, PA_CoA_ligase

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF00501, AMP-binding, 1 hit
    PF14535, AMP-binding_C_2, 1 hit

    PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

    More...
    PIRSFi
    PIRSF006444, PaaK, 1 hit

    TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

    More...
    TIGRFAMsi
    TIGR02155, PA_CoA_ligase, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q9L9C1-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MPVKTPSPGD LEPIEKASQD ELRALQLERL KWSVRHAYEN VPHYRKAFDA
    60 70 80 90 100
    KGVHPDDLKS LADLAKFPFT AKGDLRDNYP FGMFAVPREK VARVHASSGT
    110 120 130 140 150
    TGKPTVVGYT LKDIDTWATV VARSIRASGG RAGDMVHIAY GYGLFTGGLG
    160 170 180 190 200
    AHYGAEKLGC TVVPMSGGQT EKQIQLIQDF KPDIIMVTPS YMLTVLDEME
    210 220 230 240 250
    RMGIDPHQTS LKVGIFGAEP WTQAMRAAME ARAGIDAVDI YGLSEVMGPG
    260 270 280 290 300
    VANECIEAKD GPVIWEDHFY PEIIDPHTGE VLPDGSEGEL VFTTLTKEAM
    310 320 330 340 350
    PVIRYRTRDL TRLLPPTARS MRRMAKITGR SDDMLIIRGV NLFPTQVEEL
    360 370 380 390 400
    ICKNPKLAPQ YLLEVDKDGH MDTLTVKVEI NPEANVGRHP EQKEALAKEL
    410 420 430 440
    QHDIKTFIGV SAKVHVCEPF AIERVTIGKA KRVVDRRPKE
    Length:440
    Mass (Da):48,735
    Last modified:October 1, 2000 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i28920F3732A34999
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF176259 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF26285.1
    AJ278756 Genomic DNA Translation: CAC10605.1

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF176259 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF26285.1
    AJ278756 Genomic DNA Translation: CAC10605.1

    3D structure databases

    SMRiQ9L9C1
    ModBaseiSearch...

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00930
    BioCyciMetaCyc:MONOMER-12132
    SABIO-RKiQ9L9C1

    Family and domain databases

    CDDicd05913, PaaK, 1 hit
    Gene3Di3.40.50.12780, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR028154, AMP-dep_Lig_C
    IPR000873, AMP-dep_Synth/Lig
    IPR042099, AMP-dep_Synthh-like_sf
    IPR011880, PA_CoA_ligase
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF00501, AMP-binding, 1 hit
    PF14535, AMP-binding_C_2, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF006444, PaaK, 1 hit
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR02155, PA_CoA_ligase, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiPAAK_AROEV
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9L9C1
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 18, 2012
    Last sequence update: October 1, 2000
    Last modified: April 7, 2021
    This is version 47 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Direct protein sequencing

    Documents

    1. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
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