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Entry version 97 (11 Dec 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Mar 2001)
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Protein

L-carnitine dehydrogenase

Gene

lcdH

Organism
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / DSM 22644 / CIP 104116 / JCM 14847 / LMG 12228 / 1C / PRS 101 / PAO1)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of L-carnitine to 3-dehydrocarnitine. Is specific for L-carnitine and NAD+ as substrates. D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate, L-lactate, ethanol, L-malate and D,L-isocitrate are not substrates. Is involved in a L-carnitine degradation pathway that allows P.aeruginosa to grow on L-carnitine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen.2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Analogs of L-carnitine such as D-carnitine, glycine betaine and choline, are competitive inhibitors of L-carnitine oxidation.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=26 mM for L-carnitine (at pH 9.5)1 Publication
  2. KM=8.9 mM for L-carnitine (at pH 9.0)1 Publication
  3. KM=0.16 mM for NAD+ (at pH 9.0)1 Publication
  4. KM=1.3 mM for 3-dehydrocarnitine (at pH 7.2)1 Publication
  5. KM=0.022 mM for NADH (at pH 7.2)1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 9-9.5 for the forward reaction (oxidation) and 7.0 for the reverse reaction (reduction).1 Publication

    Temperature dependencei

    Optimum temperature is 35 degrees Celsius for the reaction in both directions.1 Publication

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: carnitine metabolism

    This protein is involved in the pathway carnitine metabolism, which is part of Amine and polyamine metabolism.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway carnitine metabolism and in Amine and polyamine metabolism.

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi14 – 19NADSequence analysis6

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    • carnitine catabolic process Source: PseudoCAP
    • fatty acid metabolic process Source: InterPro

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionOxidoreductase
    LigandNAD

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    More...
    BioCyci
    PAER208964:G1FZ6-5513-MONOMER

    BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

    More...
    BRENDAi
    1.1.1.108 5087

    UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

    More...
    UniPathwayi
    UPA00117

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    L-carnitine dehydrogenase (EC:1.1.1.108)
    Short name:
    CDH
    Short name:
    L-CDH
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:lcdH
    Synonyms:cdhA
    Ordered Locus Names:PA5386
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiPseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / DSM 22644 / CIP 104116 / JCM 14847 / LMG 12228 / 1C / PRS 101 / PAO1)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri208964 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaPseudomonadalesPseudomonadaceaePseudomonas
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
    • UP000002438 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome

    Organism-specific databases

    Pseudomonas genome database

    More...
    PseudoCAPi
    PA5386

    <p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm

    <p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

    Cells are incapable of growth on carnitine.1 Publication

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004179011 – 321L-carnitine dehydrogenaseAdd BLAST321

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

    More...
    PaxDbi
    Q9HTH8

    <p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

    Highly induced by carnitine via the CdhR transcriptional regulator. Not induced by glycine betaine or pyruvate.1 Publication

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.

    By similarity

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    3D structure databases

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    Q9HTH8

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni317 – 321Important for catalytic activityBy similarity5

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Phylogenomic databases

    evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

    More...
    eggNOGi
    ENOG4105F35 Bacteria
    COG1250 LUCA

    The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

    More...
    HOGENOMi
    HOG000141499

    InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

    More...
    InParanoidi
    Q9HTH8

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K17735

    Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

    More...
    OMAi
    KFLALHF

    Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

    More...
    PhylomeDBi
    Q9HTH8

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

    More...
    Gene3Di
    1.10.1040.10, 1 hit

    HAMAP database of protein families

    More...
    HAMAPi
    MF_02129 L_carnitine_dehydrog, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR022694 3-OHacyl-CoA_DH
    IPR006176 3-OHacyl-CoA_DH_NAD-bd
    IPR006108 3HC_DH_C
    IPR008927 6-PGluconate_DH-like_C_sf
    IPR013328 6PGD_dom2
    IPR026578 L-carnitine_dehydrogenase
    IPR036291 NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF00725 3HCDH, 1 hit
    PF02737 3HCDH_N, 1 hit

    PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

    More...
    PIRSFi
    PIRSF000105 HCDH, 1 hit

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    More...
    SUPFAMi
    SSF48179 SSF48179, 1 hit
    SSF51735 SSF51735, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q9HTH8-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MSFVTEIKTF AALGSGVIGS GWIARALAHG LDVVAWDPAP GAEAALRARV
    60 70 80 90 100
    ANAWPALRKQ GLAPGAAQER LRFVASIEEC VGDADFIQES APERLDLKLD
    110 120 130 140 150
    LHARISAAAR PDVLIGSSTS GLLPSEFYAE ASHPERCLVG HPFNPVYLLP
    160 170 180 190 200
    LVEVVGGERT AAEAVRAAMR VYESLGMRPL HVRKEVPGFI ADRLLEALWR
    210 220 230 240 250
    EALHLVNDGV ATTGEIDDAI RFGAGLRWSF MGTFLTYTLA GGNAGMRHFM
    260 270 280 290 300
    AQFGPALQLP WTYLPAPELT EALIDRVVEG TAEQQGARSI AELERYRDDC
    310 320
    LLAVLGAIRE TKARHGFAFA E
    Length:321
    Mass (Da):34,695
    Last modified:March 1, 2001 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iC7FDBA55F8EECA07
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AE004091 Genomic DNA Translation: AAG08771.1

    Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

    More...
    PIRi
    F82972

    NCBI Reference Sequences

    More...
    RefSeqi
    NP_254073.1, NC_002516.2
    WP_003096713.1, NZ_QZGE01000031.1

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

    More...
    EnsemblBacteriai
    AAG08771; AAG08771; PA5386

    Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    More...
    GeneIDi
    881645

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    pae:PA5386

    Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

    More...
    PATRICi
    fig|208964.12.peg.5646

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AE004091 Genomic DNA Translation: AAG08771.1
    PIRiF82972
    RefSeqiNP_254073.1, NC_002516.2
    WP_003096713.1, NZ_QZGE01000031.1

    3D structure databases

    SMRiQ9HTH8
    ModBaseiSearch...

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ9HTH8

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAG08771; AAG08771; PA5386
    GeneIDi881645
    KEGGipae:PA5386
    PATRICifig|208964.12.peg.5646

    Organism-specific databases

    PseudoCAPiPA5386

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG4105F35 Bacteria
    COG1250 LUCA
    HOGENOMiHOG000141499
    InParanoidiQ9HTH8
    KOiK17735
    OMAiKFLALHF
    PhylomeDBiQ9HTH8

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00117
    BioCyciPAER208964:G1FZ6-5513-MONOMER
    BRENDAi1.1.1.108 5087

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di1.10.1040.10, 1 hit
    HAMAPiMF_02129 L_carnitine_dehydrog, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR022694 3-OHacyl-CoA_DH
    IPR006176 3-OHacyl-CoA_DH_NAD-bd
    IPR006108 3HC_DH_C
    IPR008927 6-PGluconate_DH-like_C_sf
    IPR013328 6PGD_dom2
    IPR026578 L-carnitine_dehydrogenase
    IPR036291 NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF00725 3HCDH, 1 hit
    PF02737 3HCDH_N, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF000105 HCDH, 1 hit
    SUPFAMiSSF48179 SSF48179, 1 hit
    SSF51735 SSF51735, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiLCDH_PSEAE
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9HTH8
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 13, 2012
    Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
    Last modified: December 11, 2019
    This is version 97 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
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