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Entry version 97 (02 Jun 2021)
Sequence version 1 (01 Mar 2001)
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Protein

Phenoloxidase-activating factor 2

Gene

PPAF2

Organism
Holotrichia diomphalia (Korean black chafer)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Binds and activates processed prophenoloxidases PPO1 and PPO2 and thus is involved in the activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade probably following the recognition of pathogen-derived products.

1 Publication4 Publications

Miscellaneous

Stabilized by calcium.1 Publication

Caution

Lacks the conserved Ser residue within the catalytic triad which is replaced by a Gly residue, probably resulting in a loss of proteolytic activity.Curated
It is not clear if the light chain is degraded after cleavage.Curated

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi218CalciumCombined sources1 Publication1
Metal bindingi220Calcium; via carbonyl oxygenCombined sources1 Publication1
Metal bindingi223Calcium; via carbonyl oxygenCombined sources1 Publication1
Metal bindingi226CalciumCombined sources1 Publication1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionSerine protease homolog
Biological processImmunity, Innate immunity
LigandCalcium, Metal-binding

Protein family/group databases

MEROPS protease database

More...
MEROPSi
S01.960

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Phenoloxidase-activating factor 2Curated
Alternative name(s):
45 KDa PPAF1 Publication
Short name:
Hd-451 Publication
Prophenoloxidase-activating factor II1 Publication
Serine protease-like PPAF-2Curated
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:PPAF21 Publication
Synonyms:PPAF-II1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHolotrichia diomphalia (Korean black chafer)Imported
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri33394 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaColeopteraPolyphagaScarabaeiformiaScarabaeidaeMelolonthinaeHolotrichia

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology%5Fand%5Fbiotech%5Fsection">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi60T → A: No effect on expected cleavage, oligomerization and activity of PPO1 and PPO2. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi64Q → A: No effect on expected cleavage, oligomerization and activity of PPO1 and PPO2. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi111V → A: Loss of interaction with PPO1 and PPO2. 1 Publication1

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 241 PublicationAdd BLAST24
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_500432654525 – 99Phenoloxidase-activating factor 2 light chain2 PublicationsAdd BLAST75
ChainiPRO_0000443317100 – 415Phenoloxidase-activating factor 2 heavy chain2 PublicationsAdd BLAST316

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position and type of each covalently attached glycan group (mono-, di-, or polysaccharide).<p><a href='/help/carbohyd' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Glycosylationi32N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineCombined sources1 Publication1
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi58 ↔ 112PROSITE-ProRule annotationCombined sources1 Publication
Disulfide bondi69 ↔ 105PROSITE-ProRule annotationCombined sources1 Publication
Disulfide bondi75 ↔ 113PROSITE-ProRule annotationCombined sources1 Publication
Glycosylationi89N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparaginePROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Disulfide bondi139 ↔ 272Combined sources1 Publication
Disulfide bondi185 ↔ 201Combined sources1 Publication
Disulfide bondi285 ↔ 359Combined sources1 Publication
Disulfide bondi318 ↔ 339Combined sources1 Publication
Disulfide bondi349 ↔ 380Combined sources1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

The N-terminus is blocked (PubMed:11012672). Proteolytically cleaved by PPAF3 (PubMed:11012672, PubMed:12185078). Cleavage produces a light chain and a heavy chain, which probably remain covalently associated through an interchain disulfide bond (Probable).1 Publication3 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections ('Function', 'PTM / Processing', 'Pathology and Biotech') according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei99 – 100Cleavage1 Publication2

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
Q9GRW0

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at protein level'.<br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Hemocytes.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of the gene product at various stages of a cell, tissue or organism development. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at the protein level'.<p><a href='/help/developmental_stage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Developmental stagei

Expressed in larva (at protein level).1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Up-regulated in response to Gram-negative bacterial infections.1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Heterodimer of a light chain and a heavy chain; disulfide-linked (Probable). Can oligomerize into a dodecamer (PubMed:11012672, PubMed:16362048. PubMed:9652393).

Interacts (via CLIP domain) with cleaved PPO1 and/or PPO2; the interaction results in PPO1 and/or PPO2 activation (PubMed:16362048).

1 Publication3 Publications

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1415
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q9GRW0

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

More...
PDBe-KBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

More...
EvolutionaryTracei
Q9GRW0

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family%5Fand%5Fdomains%5Fsection">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini57 – 113ClipPROSITE-ProRule annotation2 PublicationsAdd BLAST57
Domaini151 – 404Peptidase S1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST254

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term 'domain' is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

The clip domain consists of 35-55 residues which are 'knitted' together usually by 3 conserved disulfide bonds forming a clip-like compact structure (By similarity). The clip domain interacts with cleaved PPO1 and/or PPO2; the interaction results in PPO1 and/or PPO2 activation (PubMed:16362048).PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. CLIP subfamily.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd00190, Tryp_SPc, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
2.40.10.10, 2 hits

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR022700, CLIP
IPR009003, Peptidase_S1_PA
IPR043504, Peptidase_S1_PA_chymotrypsin
IPR001314, Peptidase_S1A
IPR041515, PPAF-2_Clip
IPR001254, Trypsin_dom

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF18322, CLIP_1, 1 hit
PF00089, Trypsin, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00722, CHYMOTRYPSIN

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00020, Tryp_SPc, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF50494, SSF50494, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS51888, CLIP, 1 hit
PS50240, TRYPSIN_DOM, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9GRW0-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MKRLFVITAF FLFGAEAQNS VIDAAVVNIF GNASEYIPPG YEIVTKAPLG
60 70 80 90 100
ALTALPRCGT GADQGKKVCI VYHRCDGVTN TVTPEEVINT TGEGIFDIRE
110 120 130 140 150
NANECESYLD VCCGLPEGGV LPTPSPTPPV VPVLKPSFCG IRNERGLDFK
160 170 180 190 200
ITGQTNEAEY GEFPWMVAVL KANVIPGSGE EQLVCGGSLI APSVVLTGAH
210 220 230 240 250
CVNSYQSNLD AIKIRAGEWD TLTEKERLPY QERKIRQVII HSNFNPKTVV
260 270 280 290 300
NDVALLLLDR PLVQADNIGT ICLPQQSQIF DSTECFASGW GKKEFGSRHR
310 320 330 340 350
YSNILKKIQL PTVDRDKCQA DLRNTRLGLK FVLDQTFVCA GGEQGKDTCT
360 370 380 390 400
GDGGSPLFCP DPRNPSRYMQ MGIVAWGIGC GDENVPGVYA NVAHFRNWID
410
QEMQAKGLST TPYVE
Length:415
Mass (Da):45,258
Last modified:March 1, 2001 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i062EC180504E0125
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AJ400903 mRNA Translation: CAC12665.1

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AJ400903 mRNA Translation: CAC12665.1

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2B9LX-ray2.00A25-415[»]
SMRiQ9GRW0
ModBaseiSearch...
PDBe-KBiSearch...

Protein family/group databases

MEROPSiS01.960

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9GRW0

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ9GRW0

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00190, Tryp_SPc, 1 hit
Gene3Di2.40.10.10, 2 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR022700, CLIP
IPR009003, Peptidase_S1_PA
IPR043504, Peptidase_S1_PA_chymotrypsin
IPR001314, Peptidase_S1A
IPR041515, PPAF-2_Clip
IPR001254, Trypsin_dom
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF18322, CLIP_1, 1 hit
PF00089, Trypsin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00722, CHYMOTRYPSIN
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00020, Tryp_SPc, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF50494, SSF50494, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51888, CLIP, 1 hit
PS50240, TRYPSIN_DOM, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiPPAF2_HOLDI
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9GRW0
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 28, 2018
Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
Last modified: June 2, 2021
This is version 97 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing

Documents

  1. Peptidase families
    Classification of peptidase families and list of entries
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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