Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Entry version 100 (02 Jun 2021)
Sequence version 3 (07 Mar 2006)
Previous versions | rss
Add a publicationFeedback
Protein

Beta-casein

Gene

CSN2

Organism
Equus caballus (Horse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Important role in determination of the surface properties of the casein micelles.

By similarity

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionMilk protein

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Beta-casein
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:CSN2By similarity
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEquus caballus (Horse)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9796 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaPerissodactylaEquidaeEquus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000002281 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

Vertebrate Gene Nomenclature Database

More...
VGNCi
VGNC:16906, CSN2

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 15Sequence analysis1 PublicationAdd BLAST15
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000000447416 – 241Beta-caseinAdd BLAST226

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei24Phosphoserine; in form 4-P, form 5-P, form 6-P and form 7-P1 Publication1
Modified residuei25Phosphoserine; in form 7-P1 Publication1
Modified residuei27Phosphothreonine; in form 6-P and form 7-P1 Publication1
Modified residuei30PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei32PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei33Phosphoserine; in form 5-P, form 6-P and form 7-P1 Publication1
Modified residuei38Phosphoserine; in form 4-P, form 5-P, form 6-P and form 7-P1 Publication1
Modified residuei39Phosphoserine; in form 4-P, form 5-P, form 6-P and form 7-P1 Publication1
Modified residuei40Phosphoserine; in form 4-P, form 5-P, form 6-P and form 7-P1 Publication1
Modified residuei150Deamidated asparagine1 Publication1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

There are at least five different forms found in milk, with varying degrees of phosphorylation. These include form 3-P which is phosphorylated at three sites that have not been determined, this form is present in very low amounts, form 4-P which is phosphorylated at four sites, form 5-P which is phosphorylated at five sites, form 6-P which is phosphorylated at six sites, and form 7-P which is phosphorylated at seven sites.2 Publications
Spontaneous deamidation of Asn-150 produces aspartate or isoaspartate.1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections ('Function', 'PTM / Processing', 'Pathology and Biotech') according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei30Not phosphorylated1
Sitei32Not phosphorylated1

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q9GKK3

PeptideAtlas

More...
PeptideAtlasi
Q9GKK3

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
Q9GKK3

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at protein level'.<br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Mammary gland specific. Secreted in milk.Curated

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSECAG00000009837, Expressed in gluteus medius and 3 other tissues

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni21 – 45DisorderedSequence analysisAdd BLAST25

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular type of amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Compositional biasi25 – 41Polar residuesSequence analysisAdd BLAST17

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the beta-casein family.Sequence analysis

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00390000001890

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_106775_0_0_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q9GKK3

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
PTHQIYP

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1336883at2759

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF336929

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR001588, Casein
IPR016345, Casein_beta
IPR031305, Casein_CS

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR11500, PTHR11500, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00363, Casein, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF002372, Beta-casein, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00306, CASEIN_ALPHA_BETA, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (3)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 3 <p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket
Isoform 11 Publication (identifier: Q9GKK3-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: B1 Publication

This isoform has been chosen as the <div> <p><b>What is the canonical sequence?</b><p><a href='/help/canonical_and_isoforms' target='_top'>More...</a></p>canonicali sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MKILILACLV ALALAREKEE LNVSSETVES LSSNEPDSSS EESITHINKE
60 70 80 90 100
KLQKFKHEGQ QQREVERQDK ISRFVQPQPV VYPYAEPVPY AVVPQSILPL
110 120 130 140 150
AQPPILPFLQ PEIMEVSQAK ETILPKRKVM PFLKSPIVPF SERQILNPTN
160 170 180 190 200
GENLRLPVHL IQPFMHQVPQ SLLQTLMLPS QPVLSPPQSK VAPFPQPVVP
210 220 230 240
YPQRDTPVQA FLLYQDPRLG PTGELDPATQ PIVAVHNPVI V
Length:241
Mass (Da):27,049
Last modified:March 7, 2006 - v3
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i140B6EBF3D2323C0
GO
Isoform 21 Publication (identifier: Q9GKK3-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     42-49: Missing.

Show »
Length:233
Mass (Da):26,126
Checksum:i492A07BD010FBF88
GO
Isoform 31 Publication (identifier: Q9GKK3-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: low molecular weight beta-casein1 Publication

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     65-196: Missing.

Note: Accounts for 4% of total casein.1 Publication
Show »
Length:109
Mass (Da):12,127
Checksum:i40C3C1961A496762
GO

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports information derived from mass spectrometry experiments done on the entire protein or on biologically active derived peptide(s).<p><a href='/help/mass_spectrometry' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 25514±3 Da. Determined by ESI. Dephosphorylated. The measured range is 16-241.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 10591±2 Da. Determined by ESI. Dephosphorylated. The measured range is 16-109.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 10911 Da. Determined by ESI. Form 4-P. The measured range is 16-109.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 10991 Da. Determined by ESI. Form 5-P. The measured range is 16-109.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 11071 Da. Determined by ESI. Form 6-P. The measured range is 16-109.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 11150 Da. Determined by ESI. Form 7-P. The measured range is 16-109.1 Publication

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_05177942 – 49Missing in isoform 2. 1 Publication8
Alternative sequenceiVSP_05178065 – 196Missing in isoform 3. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST132

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF214526 mRNA Translation: AAG43954.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001075321.1, NM_001081852.1 [Q9GKK3-2]

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENSECAT00000010264; ENSECAP00000007906; ENSECAG00000009837 [Q9GKK3-2]
ENSECAT00000064283; ENSECAP00000042870; ENSECAG00000009837 [Q9GKK3-1]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
100033903

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ecb:100033903

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF214526 mRNA Translation: AAG43954.1
RefSeqiNP_001075321.1, NM_001081852.1 [Q9GKK3-2]

3D structure databases

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

More...
SWISS-MODEL-Workspacei
Submit a new modelling project...

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9GKK3

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9GKK3
PeptideAtlasiQ9GKK3

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSECAT00000010264; ENSECAP00000007906; ENSECAG00000009837 [Q9GKK3-2]
ENSECAT00000064283; ENSECAP00000042870; ENSECAG00000009837 [Q9GKK3-1]
GeneIDi100033903
KEGGiecb:100033903

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
1447
VGNCiVGNC:16906, CSN2

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00390000001890
HOGENOMiCLU_106775_0_0_1
InParanoidiQ9GKK3
OMAiPTHQIYP
OrthoDBi1336883at2759
TreeFamiTF336929

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSECAG00000009837, Expressed in gluteus medius and 3 other tissues

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001588, Casein
IPR016345, Casein_beta
IPR031305, Casein_CS
PANTHERiPTHR11500, PTHR11500, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00363, Casein, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF002372, Beta-casein, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00306, CASEIN_ALPHA_BETA, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiCASB_HORSE
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9GKK3
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 16, 2005
Last sequence update: March 7, 2006
Last modified: June 2, 2021
This is version 100 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

We'd like to inform you that we have updated our Privacy Notice to comply with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018.

Do not show this banner again