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Protein

Chymosin

Gene

CYM

Organism
Camelus dromedarius (Dromedary) (Arabian camel)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Chymosin is synthesized in the mucosa of the abomasum (fourth stomach) of young (unweaned) ruminants (PubMed:16488399). The enzyme hydrolyzes casein to paracasein (PubMed:16488399, PubMed:23633601, PubMed:25726113, PubMed:25837439).4 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

kcat is 5.1 s(-1) for undecapeptide analog to chymosin sensitive region of camel kappa-chain of casein and kcat is 11.7 s(-1) for undecapeptide analog to chymosin sensitive region of bovine kappa-chain of casein (PubMed:16488399). Activity is 462 International Milk-Clotting Units (IMCU) per mg enzyme. kcat is 11 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.7), kcat is 53 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.0), kcat is 47 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 5.5), kcat is 14 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.7), kcat is 65 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.0) and kcat is 59 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 5.5) (PubMed:25726113). Activity is 400 IMCU per ml enzyme. Supplemental CaCl2 at concentration between 20-40 mM is optimal for stable enzyme activity (PubMed:25837439).3 Publications
  1. KM=56 µM for undecapeptide analog to chymosin sensitive region of camel kappa-chain of casein1 Publication
  2. KM=77 µM for undecapeptide analog to chymosin sensitive region of bovine kappa-chain of casein1 Publication
  3. KM=18 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.7)1 Publication
  4. KM=11 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.0)1 Publication
  5. KM=7 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 5.5)1 Publication
  6. KM=20 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.7)1 Publication
  7. KM=11 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.0)1 Publication
  8. KM=8 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 5.5)1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is about 5.1 (PubMed:16488399). Activity decreases with increasing pH values (PubMed:25837439).2 Publications

    Temperature dependencei

    Optimum temperature is between 45-55 degrees Celsius (PubMed:16488399, PubMed:25837439). 50% activity at 35 and 60 degrees Celsius. No activity below 20 or above 70 degrees Celsius (PubMed:25837439).2 Publications

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei92PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
    Active sitei274PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    • aspartic-type endopeptidase activity Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionAspartyl protease, Hydrolase, Protease
    Biological processDigestion

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

    More...
    BRENDAi
    3.4.23.4 1085

    Protein family/group databases

    MEROPS protease database

    More...
    MEROPSi
    A01.006

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Chymosin1 PublicationImported (EC:3.4.23.44 Publications)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:CYMCurated
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiCamelus dromedarius (Dromedary) (Arabian camel)Imported
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9838 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaTylopodaCamelidaeCamelus

    <p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section describes the use of a specific protein in the biotechnological industry.<p><a href='/help/biotechnological_use' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Biotechnological usei

    The extraordinary high clotting activity, combined with its very low non-specific activity may be useful in the production of cheese types, for which a bitter taste is unfavorable, for example Mascarpone type cheese (PubMed:16488399). Large-scale expression of camel chymosin gene in P.pastoris could represent an excellent system for producing active chymosin for potential use in the commercial production of cheese (PubMed:25837439).2 Publications

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 16By similarityAdd BLAST16
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section describes a propeptide, which is a part of a protein that is cleaved during maturation or activation. Once cleaved, a propeptide generally has no independent biological function.<p><a href='/help/propep' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PropeptideiPRO_000043846217 – 58Activation peptide1 PublicationAdd BLAST42
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_500432643859 – 381ChymosinAdd BLAST323

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi105 ↔ 110Combined sources1 Publication
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position and type of each covalently attached glycan group (mono-, di-, or polysaccharide).<p><a href='/help/carbohyd' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Glycosylationi158N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineCombined sources1 Publication1
    Disulfide bondi265 ↔ 269Combined sources1 Publication
    Disulfide bondi308 ↔ 341PROSITE-ProRule annotationCombined sources1 Publication
    Glycosylationi349N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagine1 Publication1

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Zymogen

    PTM databases

    iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

    More...
    iPTMneti
    Q9GK11

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1381
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details

    3D structure databases

    Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

    More...
    ProteinModelPortali
    Q9GK11

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    Q9GK11

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family_and_domains_section">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini74 – 378Peptidase A1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST305

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the peptidase A1 family.PROSITE-ProRule annotationCurated

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

    More...
    HOVERGENi
    HBG000482

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K01378

    Database of Orthologous Groups

    More...
    OrthoDBi
    EOG091G0JP7

    Family and domain databases

    Conserved Domains Database

    More...
    CDDi
    cd05478 pepsin_A, 1 hit

    Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

    More...
    Gene3Di
    2.40.70.10, 2 hits

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR001461 Aspartic_peptidase_A1
    IPR001969 Aspartic_peptidase_AS
    IPR012848 Aspartic_peptidase_N
    IPR034162 Pepsin_A
    IPR033121 PEPTIDASE_A1
    IPR021109 Peptidase_aspartic_dom_sf

    The PANTHER Classification System

    More...
    PANTHERi
    PTHR13683 PTHR13683, 1 hit

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF07966 A1_Propeptide, 1 hit
    PF00026 Asp, 1 hit

    Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

    More...
    PRINTSi
    PR00792 PEPSIN

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    More...
    SUPFAMi
    SSF50630 SSF50630, 1 hit

    PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

    More...
    PROSITEi
    View protein in PROSITE
    PS00141 ASP_PROTEASE, 2 hits
    PS51767 PEPTIDASE_A1, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    Q9GK11-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MRCLVVLLAA LALSQASGIT RIPLHKGKTL RKALKERGLL EDFLQRQQYA
    60 70 80 90 100
    VSSKYSSLGK VAREPLTSYL DSQYFGKIYI GTPPQEFTVV FDTGSSDLWV
    110 120 130 140 150
    PSIYCKSNVC KNHHRFDPRK SSTFRNLGKP LSIHYGTGSM EGFLGYDTVT
    160 170 180 190 200
    VSNIVDPNQT VGLSTEQPGE VFTYSEFDGI LGLAYPSLAS EYSVPVFDNM
    210 220 230 240 250
    MDRHLVARDL FSVYMDRNGQ GSMLTLGAID PSYYTGSLHW VPVTLQQYWQ
    260 270 280 290 300
    FTVDSVTING VAVACVGGCQ AILDTGTSVL FGPSSDILKI QMAIGATENR
    310 320 330 340 350
    YGEFDVNCGN LRSMPTVVFE INGRDYPLSP SAYTSKDQGF CTSGFQGDNN
    360 370 380
    SELWILGDVF IREYYSVFDR ANNRVGLAKA I
    Length:381
    Mass (Da):42,083
    Last modified:March 1, 2001 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i24BADB57B2E7FDD7
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AJ131677 mRNA Translation: CAC19554.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences

    More...
    RefSeqi
    NP_001290503.1, NM_001303574.1

    Genome annotation databases

    Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    More...
    GeneIDi
    105085668

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    cdk:105085668

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AJ131677 mRNA Translation: CAC19554.1
    RefSeqiNP_001290503.1, NM_001303574.1

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:

    Protein Data Bank Europe

    More...
    PDBei

    Protein Data Bank RCSB

    More...
    RCSB PDBi

    Protein Data Bank Japan

    More...
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    4AA9X-ray1.60A62-381[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ9GK11
    SMRiQ9GK11
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein family/group databases

    MEROPSiA01.006

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiQ9GK11

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    GeneIDi105085668
    KEGGicdk:105085668

    Phylogenomic databases

    HOVERGENiHBG000482
    KOiK01378
    OrthoDBiEOG091G0JP7

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDAi3.4.23.4 1085

    Family and domain databases

    CDDicd05478 pepsin_A, 1 hit
    Gene3Di2.40.70.10, 2 hits
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR001461 Aspartic_peptidase_A1
    IPR001969 Aspartic_peptidase_AS
    IPR012848 Aspartic_peptidase_N
    IPR034162 Pepsin_A
    IPR033121 PEPTIDASE_A1
    IPR021109 Peptidase_aspartic_dom_sf
    PANTHERiPTHR13683 PTHR13683, 1 hit
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF07966 A1_Propeptide, 1 hit
    PF00026 Asp, 1 hit
    PRINTSiPR00792 PEPSIN
    SUPFAMiSSF50630 SSF50630, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS00141 ASP_PROTEASE, 2 hits
    PS51767 PEPTIDASE_A1, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiCHYM_CAMDR
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9GK11
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 30, 2016
    Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
    Last modified: December 5, 2018
    This is version 89 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing

    Documents

    1. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
    3. Peptidase families
      Classification of peptidase families and list of entries
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