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Entry version 75 (11 Dec 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Mar 2001)
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Protein

Aureusidin synthase

Gene

AS1

Organism
Antirrhinum majus (Garden snapdragon)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Involved in the biosynthesis of aurones, plant flavonoids that provide yellow coloration to flowers. Can use tetrahydroxychalcone (THC), pentahydroxychalcone (PHC), THC 4'-glucoside and PHC 4'-glucoside as substrates, but not 2'-hydroxychalcone, 4-hydroxychalcone, PHC 3-glucoside, 2',6'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxychalcone, naringenin, eriodictyol and 4,4',6-trihydroxyaurone. Can also produce bracteatin from PHC.2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Cu2+1 PublicationNote: Binds 2 copper ions per subunit.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

H2O2 activates the 3-hydroxylation and oxidative cyclization of tetrahydroxychalcone but inhibits reaction with pentahydroxychalcone. Inhibited by phenylthiourea.2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=4.3 µM for 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone2 Publications
  2. KM=3.9 µM for 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone 4'-glucoside2 Publications
  3. KM=2.5 µM for isoliquiritigenin2 Publications
  4. KM=15.7 µM for 2',3,4,4',6'-pentahydroxychalcone2 Publications
  5. KM=8.1 µM for 2',3,4,4',6'-pentahydroxychalcone 4'-glucoside2 Publications
  6. KM=14.7 µM for butein2 Publications

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 5.4 for the reaction with tetrahydroxychalcone and 5.0 - 7.0 for the reaction with pentahydroxychalcone.2 Publications

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the ‘Description’ field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi147Copper ABy similarity1
    Metal bindingi168Copper ABy similarity1
    Metal bindingi177Copper ABy similarity1
    Metal bindingi301Copper BBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi305Copper BBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi335Copper BBy similarity1

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionOxidoreductase
    LigandCopper, Metal-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

    More...
    BRENDAi
    1.21.3.6 376

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Aureusidin synthase (EC:1.21.3.62 Publications)
    Short name:
    AmAS1
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:AS1
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiAntirrhinum majus (Garden snapdragon)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri4151 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliopsidaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaeasteridslamiidsLamialesPlantaginaceaeAntirrhineaeAntirrhinum

    <p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

    Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Vacuole

    <p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology_and_biotech_section">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi50L → F: Loss of vacuolar targeting. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi52Y → P: Loss of vacuolar targeting. 1 Publication1

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004184161 – 562Aureusidin synthaseAdd BLAST562

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi71 ↔ 86By similarity
    Disulfide bondi85 ↔ 148By similarity
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section describes <strong>covalent linkages</strong> of various types formed <strong>between two proteins (interchain cross-links)</strong> or <strong>between two parts of the same protein (intrachain cross-links)</strong>, except the disulfide bonds that are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/disulfid">'Disulfide bond'</a> subsection.<p><a href='/help/crosslnk' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-linki151 ↔ 1682'-(S-cysteinyl)-histidine (Cys-His)By similarity

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

    Glycosylated.1 Publication
    Contains probably N- and C-terminal propeptides.

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Thioether bond

    <p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

    Expressed in petals. Not detected in stems and leaves.1 Publication

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

    Monomer.

    1 Publication

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    3D structure databases

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    Q9FRX6

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term ‘domain’ is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

    The N-terminal sequence (1-53) is sufficient for vacuolar targeting.

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the tyrosinase family.Curated

    Phylogenomic databases

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K13079

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

    More...
    Gene3Di
    1.10.1280.10, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR016213 Polyphenol_oxidase
    IPR022740 Polyphenol_oxidase_C
    IPR022739 Polyphenol_oxidase_cen
    IPR002227 Tyrosinase_Cu-bd
    IPR008922 Unchr_di-copper_centre

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF12142 PPO1_DWL, 1 hit
    PF12143 PPO1_KFDV, 1 hit
    PF00264 Tyrosinase, 1 hit

    PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

    More...
    PIRSFi
    PIRSF000290 PPO_plant, 1 hit

    Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

    More...
    PRINTSi
    PR00092 TYROSINASE

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    More...
    SUPFAMi
    SSF48056 SSF48056, 1 hit

    PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

    More...
    PROSITEi
    View protein in PROSITE
    PS00498 TYROSINASE_2, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q9FRX6-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MFKNPNIRYH KLSSKSNDND QESSHRCKHI LLFIITLFLL IVGLYIANSL
    60 70 80 90 100
    AYARFASTST GPIAAPDVTK CGQPDLPPGT APINCCPPIP AKIIDFELPP
    110 120 130 140 150
    PSTTMRVRRA AHLVDDAYIA KFKKAVELMR ALPEDDPRSF KQQANVHCAY
    160 170 180 190 200
    CAGAYNQAGF TNLKLQIHRS WLFFPFHRYY IYFFERILGK LINDTTFALP
    210 220 230 240 250
    FWNYDSPGGM TIPSMFIDTN SSLYDSLRDS NHQPPTIVDL NYAFSDSDNT
    260 270 280 290 300
    TTPEEQMIIN LKIVYRQMVS SAKTPQLFFG RPYRRGDQEF PGVGSIELVP
    310 320 330 340 350
    HGMIHLWTGS ENTPYGENMG AFYSTARDPI FFAHHSNVDR MWSIWKTLGG
    360 370 380 390 400
    PRRTDLTDPD FLDASFVFYD ENAEMVRVKV RDCLDEKKLG YVYQDVEIPW
    410 420 430 440 450
    LNTRPTPKVS PSLLKKFHRT NTANPRQVFP AILDRVLKVI VTRPKKTRSR
    460 470 480 490 500
    KEKDELEEIL VIEGIELERD HGHVKFDVYI NADEDDLAVI SPENAEFAGS
    510 520 530 540 550
    FVSLWHKPIK GKRTKTQLLT LSICDILEDL DADEDDYVLV TLVPRNAGDA
    560
    IKIHNVKIEL DG
    Length:562
    Mass (Da):64,044
    Last modified:March 1, 2001 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i660C2D72C3C054E3
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AB044884 mRNA Translation: BAB20048.1
    EF650014 mRNA Translation: ABR57233.1

    Genome annotation databases

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    ag:BAB20048

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AB044884 mRNA Translation: BAB20048.1
    EF650014 mRNA Translation: ABR57233.1

    3D structure databases

    SMRiQ9FRX6
    ModBaseiSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    KEGGiag:BAB20048

    Phylogenomic databases

    KOiK13079

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDAi1.21.3.6 376

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di1.10.1280.10, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR016213 Polyphenol_oxidase
    IPR022740 Polyphenol_oxidase_C
    IPR022739 Polyphenol_oxidase_cen
    IPR002227 Tyrosinase_Cu-bd
    IPR008922 Unchr_di-copper_centre
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF12142 PPO1_DWL, 1 hit
    PF12143 PPO1_KFDV, 1 hit
    PF00264 Tyrosinase, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF000290 PPO_plant, 1 hit
    PRINTSiPR00092 TYROSINASE
    SUPFAMiSSF48056 SSF48056, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS00498 TYROSINASE_2, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiAS1_ANTMA
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9FRX6
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: September 5, 2012
    Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
    Last modified: December 11, 2019
    This is version 75 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Direct protein sequencing

    Documents

    1. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
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