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Entry version 134 (08 May 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Mar 2001)
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Protein

Transcription activator GLK2

Gene

GLK2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Transcriptional activator that functions with GLK1 to promote chloroplast development. Acts as an activator of nuclear photosynthetic genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, light harvesting, and electron transport. Acts in a cell-autonomous manner to coordinate and maintain the photosynthetic apparatus within individual cells. May function in photosynthetic capacity optimization by integrating responses to variable environmental and endogenous cues (PubMed:11828027, PubMed:12220263, PubMed:18643989, PubMed:19376934, PubMed:19383092, PubMed:19726569). Prevents premature senescence (PubMed:23459204).7 Publications

Miscellaneous

Plants overexpressing GLK2 have a delay in flowering under long days.

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section specifies the position and type of each DNA-binding domain present within the protein.<p><a href='/help/dna_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>DNA bindingi144 – 203Myb-like GARPPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST60

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding
Biological processTranscription, Transcription regulation

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Transcription activator GLK2
Alternative name(s):
GBF'S PRO-RICH REGION-INTERACTING factor 2
Golden2-like protein 2
Short name:
AtGLK2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:GLK2
Synonyms:GPRI2
Ordered Locus Names:At5g44190
ORF Names:MLN1.11
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

Arabidopsis Information Portal

More...
Araporti
AT5G44190

The Arabidopsis Information Resource

More...
TAIRi
locus:2167639 AT5G44190

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Pale green siliques (PubMed:12220263). Pale-green seedlings in double mutants glk1/glk2 (PubMed:23459204).2 Publications

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004083861 – 386Transcription activator GLK2Add BLAST386

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q9FFH0

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed in cotyledons and rosette and cauline leaves. Expressed at low levels in roots, shoots, flowers and siliques.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

By light. Repressed by BZR2.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

More...
ExpressionAtlasi
Q9FFH0 baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
Q9FFH0 AT

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Interacts with NAC92.

1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section%27">Interaction</a> section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
NAC92Q9FKA06EBI-6862475,EBI-6862413

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

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BioGridi
19692, 16 interactors

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
Q9FFH0, 15 interactors

Molecular INTeraction database

More...
MINTi
Q9FFH0

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
3702.AT5G44190.1

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q9FFH0

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG410IH7K Eukaryota
ENOG4111SK7 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000237698

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q9FFH0

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
WRDDEQE

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1174914at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q9FFH0

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR009057 Homeobox-like_sf
IPR017930 Myb_dom
IPR006447 Myb_dom_plants
IPR001005 SANT/Myb

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00249 Myb_DNA-binding, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF46689 SSF46689, 1 hit

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR01557 myb_SHAQKYF, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS51294 HTH_MYB, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence (1+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry has 1 described isoform and 1 potential isoform that is computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Q9FFH0-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MLTVSPAPVL IGNNSKDTYM AADFADFTTE DLPDFTTVGD FSDDLLDGID
60 70 80 90 100
YYDDLFIGFD GDDVLPDLEI DSEILGEYSG SGRDEEQEME GNTSTASETS
110 120 130 140 150
ERDVGVCKQE GGGGGDGGFR DKTVRRGKRK GKKSKDCLSD ENDIKKKPKV
160 170 180 190 200
DWTPELHRKF VQAVEQLGVD KAVPSRILEI MNVKSLTRHN VASHLQKYRS
210 220 230 240 250
HRKHLLAREA EAASWNLRRH ATVAVPGVGG GGKKPWTAPA LGYPPHVAPM
260 270 280 290 300
HHGHFRPLHV WGHPTWPKHK PNTPASAHRT YPMPAIAAAP ASWPGHPPYW
310 320 330 340 350
HQQPLYPQGY GMASSNHSSI GVPTRQLGPT NPPIDIHPSN ESIDAAIGDV
360 370 380
ISKPWLPLPL GLKPPSVDGV MTELQRQGVS NVPPLP
Length:386
Mass (Da):42,167
Last modified:March 1, 2001 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iA61AFE189A98C606
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There is 1 potential isoform mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
A0A1P8BF90A0A1P8BF90_ARATH
GOLDEN2-like 2
GLK2 ATGLK2, GOLDEN2-like 2, GPRI2, MLN1.11, MLN1_11
352Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAK91403 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous termination at position 315. Translated as Ser.Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB062490 mRNA Translation: BAB78467.1
AY026773 mRNA Translation: AAK16744.1
AY028368 Genomic DNA Translation: AAK20121.1
AB005239 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB10986.1
CP002688 Genomic DNA Translation: AED95072.1
AY050386 mRNA Translation: AAK91403.1 Sequence problems.
AY124819 mRNA Translation: AAM70528.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_199232.1, NM_123786.4

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl plant genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblPlantsi
AT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.1; AT5G44190

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
834442

Gramene; a comparative resource for plants

More...
Gramenei
AT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.1; AT5G44190

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ath:AT5G44190

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB062490 mRNA Translation: BAB78467.1
AY026773 mRNA Translation: AAK16744.1
AY028368 Genomic DNA Translation: AAK20121.1
AB005239 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB10986.1
CP002688 Genomic DNA Translation: AED95072.1
AY050386 mRNA Translation: AAK91403.1 Sequence problems.
AY124819 mRNA Translation: AAM70528.1
RefSeqiNP_199232.1, NM_123786.4

3D structure databases

SMRiQ9FFH0
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi19692, 16 interactors
IntActiQ9FFH0, 15 interactors
MINTiQ9FFH0
STRINGi3702.AT5G44190.1

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9FFH0

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.1; AT5G44190
GeneIDi834442
GrameneiAT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.1; AT5G44190
KEGGiath:AT5G44190

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT5G44190
TAIRilocus:2167639 AT5G44190

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IH7K Eukaryota
ENOG4111SK7 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000237698
InParanoidiQ9FFH0
OMAiWRDDEQE
OrthoDBi1174914at2759
PhylomeDBiQ9FFH0

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q9FFH0

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ9FFH0 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ9FFH0 AT

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009057 Homeobox-like_sf
IPR017930 Myb_dom
IPR006447 Myb_dom_plants
IPR001005 SANT/Myb
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00249 Myb_DNA-binding, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF46689 SSF46689, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01557 myb_SHAQKYF, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51294 HTH_MYB, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGLK2_ARATH
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9FFH0
Secondary accession number(s): Q94A45
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 3, 2011
Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
Last modified: May 8, 2019
This is version 134 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
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