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Protein

Histone H2A-Bbd type 1

Gene

H2afb1

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Atypical histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A during late spermatogenesis and is involved in the replacement of histones to protamine in male germ cells (PubMed:28366643). Core component of nucleosome: nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template (PubMed:19506029). Nucleosomes containing H2AFB1 only wrap 130 bp of DNA, compared to 147 bp for classical nucleosomes (PubMed:19506029). In condensing spermatids, the heterodimer between H2AFB1 and HIST1H2BA/TH2B is loaded onto the nucleosomes and promotes loading of transition proteins (TNP1 and TNP2) onto the nucleosomes (PubMed:28366643). Inclusion of the H2AFB1-HIST1H2BA/TH2B dimer into chromatin opens the nucleosomes, releasing the nucleosomal DNA ends and allowing the invasion of nucleosomes by transition proteins (TNP1 and TNP2) (PubMed:28366643). Then, transition proteins drive the recruitment and processing of protamines, which are responsible for histone eviction (PubMed:28366643).2 Publications

Miscellaneous

In contrast to other H2A histones, it does not contain the conserved residues that are the target of post-translational modifications.Curated

Caution

Although related to variant histone H2AFB1 in human (AC P0C5Y9), it is unclear whether human and mouse H2AFB1 proteins are involved in similar processes. In mouse, variant histone H2AFB1 is specifically required to direct the transformation of dissociating nucleosomes to protamine in male germ cells during spermatogenesis (PubMed:28366643). It is however unclear whether human protein, which participates to mRNA processing and is associated with active transcription, is also involved in nucleosomes to protamine replacement.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • DNA binding Source: GO_Central
  • histone binding Source: UniProtKB
  • protein heterodimerization activity Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding
Biological processDifferentiation, Spermatogenesis

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Histone H2A-Bbd type 1Curated
Alternative name(s):
H2A Barr body-deficientBy similarity
Short name:
H2A.BbdBy similarity
Histone H2A-like 21 Publication
Short name:
H2A.L.21 Publication
Short name:
H2AL21 Publication
Short name:
Histone H2Alike 21 Publication
Testis-specific expressed gene 1 protein1 Publication
Short name:
TSEG-11 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:H2afb1Imported
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:1915481 H2afb1

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chromosome, Nucleosome core, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Male mice are completely sterile due to defects in spermatogenesis. Chromatin in mature spermatozoa shows defects in density, due to impaired histone replacement by protamines. A significant proportion of Prm2 remains unprocessed.1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00004196841 – 111Histone H2A-Bbd type 1Add BLAST111

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9CQ70
PRIDEiQ9CQ70

PTM databases

PhosphoSitePlusiQ9CQ70

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highly expressed in adult testis, mainly in spermatocytes (PubMed:20008104, PubMed:20188161, PubMed:17261847).3 Publications

Developmental stagei

Expressed since postnatal day (P) 21, peaks at P30, and gradually decreases in the testis of aging mouse (PubMed:20008104, PubMed:20188161). Coexpressed with transition proteins during late spermiogenesis (PubMed:28366643). Strongly enriched in step 12-16 spermatids and accumulate during late spermiogenesis, in condensing spermatids (PubMed:17261847). Remains present in mature spermatozoa isolated from epididymis (PubMed:17261847). Rapidly disappears from the paternal pericentric heterochromatin regions after sperm-egg fusion (PubMed:18703863).5 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000062651
GenevisibleiQ9CQ70 MM

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers (PubMed:19506029). Incorporated into nucleosomes during late spermatogenesis (PubMed:19506029). Interacts with HIST1H2BA/TH2B; preferentially dimerizes with HIST1H2BA/TH2B to form nucleosomes (PubMed:17261847, PubMed:28366643).3 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • histone binding Source: UniProtKB
  • protein heterodimerization activity Source: InterPro

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000100618

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9CQ70
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the histone H2A family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1756 Eukaryota
COG5262 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00910000144462
HOGENOMiHOG000234652
HOVERGENiHBG009342
InParanoidiQ9CQ70
KOiK11251
OMAiREGQFAN
OrthoDBiEOG091G14WU
PhylomeDBiQ9CQ70
TreeFamiTF300137

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.20.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009072 Histone-fold
IPR002119 Histone_H2A
IPR007125 Histone_H2A/H2B/H3
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00125 Histone, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00620 HISTONEH2A
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00414 H2A, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF47113 SSF47113, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q9CQ70-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MARKRQRRRR RKVTRSQRAE LQFPVSRVDR FLREGNYSRR LSSSAPVFLA
60 70 80 90 100
GVLEYLTSNI LELAGEVAHT TGRKRIAPEH VCRVVQNNEQ LHQLFKQGGT
110
SVFEPPEPDD N
Length:111
Mass (Da):12,843
Last modified:June 1, 2001 - v1
Checksum:iBCE5ADE3DA416069
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti89E → G in BAB24661 (PubMed:16141072).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
EU079024 mRNA Translation: ABU52995.1
AK006586 mRNA Translation: BAB24661.1
AK015538 mRNA Translation: BAB29887.1
AK018839 mRNA Translation: BAB31458.1
AK018922 mRNA Translation: BAB31484.1
AK018951 mRNA Translation: BAB31492.1
AK018962 mRNA Translation: BAB31496.1
AK160415 mRNA Translation: BAE35779.1
AL928589 Genomic DNA Translation: CAM21795.1
CH466542 Genomic DNA Translation: EDL08091.1
BC061062 mRNA Translation: AAH61062.1
CCDSiCCDS38050.1
RefSeqiNP_080903.1, NM_026627.2
UniGeneiMm.23887

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000105001; ENSMUSP00000100618; ENSMUSG00000062651
GeneIDi68231
KEGGimmu:68231
UCSCiuc008ili.1 mouse

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiH2AB1_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9CQ70
Secondary accession number(s): Q9D9Q5
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 3, 2012
Last sequence update: June 1, 2001
Last modified: July 18, 2018
This is version 138 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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