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Entry version 126 (16 Jan 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Jun 2001)
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Protein

Glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase A HPR2

Gene

HPR2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate (HP) into glycolate and glycerate in the cytoplasm, thus providing a cytosolic bypass to the photorespiratory core cycle. Mostly active in the presence of NADPH and hydroxypyruvate.2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Strongly inhibited by oxalate.1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei232By similarity1
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei256NADPBy similarity1
Active sitei261By similarity1
Active sitei279Proton donorBy similarity1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi152 – 155NADPBy similarity4
Nucleotide bindingi174 – 176NADPBy similarity3
Nucleotide bindingi230 – 232NADPBy similarity3
Nucleotide bindingi279 – 281NADPBy similarity3

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • oxidative photosynthetic carbon pathway Source: UniProtKB

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
Biological processGlycolate pathway, Photorespiration
LigandNAD, NADP, Pyruvate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
ARA:AT1G79870-MONOMER
MetaCyc:AT1G79870-MONOMER

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

More...
BRENDAi
1.1.1.81 399

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-ATH-389661 Glyoxylate metabolism and glycine degradation

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase A HPR2 (EC:1.1.1.79, EC:1.1.1.81)
Alternative name(s):
NAD(P)H-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase 2
Short name:
AtHPR2
Short name:
HPR 2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:HPR2
Ordered Locus Names:At1g79870
ORF Names:F19K16.17
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

Arabidopsis Information Portal

More...
Araporti
AT1G79870

The Arabidopsis Information Resource

More...
TAIRi
locus:2017824 AT1G79870

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Elevated levels of hydroxypyruvate and other metabolites in leaves. Under long-day conditions, slightly altered photosynthetic gas exchange. When associated with HPR1 disruption, strong air-sensitivity and dramatic reduction in photosynthetic performance.1 Publication

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004199521 – 313Glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase A HPR2Add BLAST313

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q9CA90

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
Q9CA90

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
Q9CA90

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

More...
ExpressionAtlasi
Q9CA90 baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
Q9CA90 AT

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
3702.AT1G79870.1

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

More...
ProteinModelPortali
Q9CA90

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q9CA90

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG0069 Eukaryota
COG1052 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000136700

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q9CA90

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K15919

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
KWIAHNG

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1378766at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q9CA90

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR006139 D-isomer_2_OHA_DH_cat_dom
IPR029752 D-isomer_DH_CS1
IPR006140 D-isomer_DH_NAD-bd
IPR036291 NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00389 2-Hacid_dh, 1 hit
PF02826 2-Hacid_dh_C, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51735 SSF51735, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

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PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00065 D_2_HYDROXYACID_DH_1, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket
Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9CA90-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MESIGVLMMC PMSSYLENEL EKRFNLLRFW TSPEKSVLLE THRNSIRAVV
60 70 80 90 100
GNASAGADAQ LISDLPNLEI VSSFSVGLDK IDLGKCKEKG IRVTNTPDVL
110 120 130 140 150
TEDVADLAIG LILALLRRLC ECDRYVRSGK WKQGEFQLTT KFSGKSVGII
160 170 180 190 200
GLGRIGTAIA KRAEAFSCPI NYYSRTIKPD VAYKYYPTVV DLAQNSDILV
210 220 230 240 250
VACPLTEQTR HIVDRQVMDA LGAKGVLINI GRGPHVDEQE LIKALTEGRL
260 270 280 290 300
GGAALDVFEQ EPHVPEELFG LENVVLLPHV GSGTVETRNA MADLVVGNLE
310
AHFSGKSLLT PVV
Length:313
Mass (Da):34,161
Last modified:June 1, 2001 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iA8D52C698A03B183
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9CA90-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     134-152: Missing.

Note: Derived from EST data. No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:294
Mass (Da):32,197
Checksum:i55F17371E075DB34
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_044377134 – 152Missing in isoform 2. CuratedAdd BLAST19

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AC011717 Genomic DNA Translation: AAG52259.1
CP002684 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE36315.1
CP002684 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE36316.1
AY069901 mRNA Translation: AAL47452.1
AY113022 mRNA Translation: AAM47330.1
AY088166 mRNA Translation: AAM65710.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

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PIRi
G96829

NCBI Reference Sequences

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RefSeqi
NP_001185444.1, NM_001198515.1 [Q9CA90-2]
NP_178105.1, NM_106636.3 [Q9CA90-1]

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

More...
UniGenei
At.27554

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl plant genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblPlantsi
AT1G79870.1; AT1G79870.1; AT1G79870 [Q9CA90-1]
AT1G79870.2; AT1G79870.2; AT1G79870 [Q9CA90-2]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
844326

Gramene; a comparative resource for plants

More...
Gramenei
AT1G79870.1; AT1G79870.1; AT1G79870 [Q9CA90-1]
AT1G79870.2; AT1G79870.2; AT1G79870 [Q9CA90-2]

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ath:AT1G79870

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AC011717 Genomic DNA Translation: AAG52259.1
CP002684 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE36315.1
CP002684 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE36316.1
AY069901 mRNA Translation: AAL47452.1
AY113022 mRNA Translation: AAM47330.1
AY088166 mRNA Translation: AAM65710.1
PIRiG96829
RefSeqiNP_001185444.1, NM_001198515.1 [Q9CA90-2]
NP_178105.1, NM_106636.3 [Q9CA90-1]
UniGeneiAt.27554

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9CA90
SMRiQ9CA90
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT1G79870.1

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9CA90

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9CA90
PRIDEiQ9CA90

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G79870.1; AT1G79870.1; AT1G79870 [Q9CA90-1]
AT1G79870.2; AT1G79870.2; AT1G79870 [Q9CA90-2]
GeneIDi844326
GrameneiAT1G79870.1; AT1G79870.1; AT1G79870 [Q9CA90-1]
AT1G79870.2; AT1G79870.2; AT1G79870 [Q9CA90-2]
KEGGiath:AT1G79870

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT1G79870
TAIRilocus:2017824 AT1G79870

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0069 Eukaryota
COG1052 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000136700
InParanoidiQ9CA90
KOiK15919
OMAiKWIAHNG
OrthoDBi1378766at2759
PhylomeDBiQ9CA90

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT1G79870-MONOMER
MetaCyc:AT1G79870-MONOMER
BRENDAi1.1.1.81 399
ReactomeiR-ATH-389661 Glyoxylate metabolism and glycine degradation

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q9CA90

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ9CA90 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ9CA90 AT

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR006139 D-isomer_2_OHA_DH_cat_dom
IPR029752 D-isomer_DH_CS1
IPR006140 D-isomer_DH_NAD-bd
IPR036291 NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00389 2-Hacid_dh, 1 hit
PF02826 2-Hacid_dh_C, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF51735 SSF51735, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00065 D_2_HYDROXYACID_DH_1, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiHPR2_ARATH
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9CA90
Secondary accession number(s): F4HQC5
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 31, 2012
Last sequence update: June 1, 2001
Last modified: January 16, 2019
This is version 126 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
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