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Protein

Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase

Gene

BCO2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Asymmetrically cleaves beta-carotene at the 9',10' double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10'-carotenal and beta-ionone. Besides beta-carotene, lycopene is also oxidatively cleaved. The apocarotenals formed by this enzyme may be the precursors for the biosynthesis of retinoic acid or exert unknown physiological effects.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

All-trans-beta-carotene + O2 = all-trans-10'-apo-beta-carotenal + beta-ionone.

Cofactori

Fe2+By similarityNote: Binds 1 Fe2+ ion per subunit.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Metal bindingi226Iron; catalyticBy similarity1
Metal bindingi286Iron; catalyticBy similarity1
Metal bindingi357Iron; catalyticBy similarity1
Metal bindingi573Iron; catalyticBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDioxygenase, Oxidoreductase
LigandIron, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:G66-33846-MONOMER
BRENDAi1.13.11.71 2681
ReactomeiR-HSA-975634 Retinoid metabolism and transport

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (EC:1.13.11.71)
Alternative name(s):
B-diox-II
Beta-carotene dioxygenase 2
Gene namesi
Name:BCO2
Synonyms:BCDO2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 11

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000197580.11
HGNCiHGNC:18503 BCO2
MIMi611740 gene
neXtProtiNX_Q9BYV7

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Mitochondrion

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi83875
OpenTargetsiENSG00000197580
PharmGKBiPA162377424

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiBCO2
DMDMi308153680

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00001439371 – 579Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenaseAdd BLAST579

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9BYV7
PeptideAtlasiQ9BYV7
PRIDEiQ9BYV7
ProteomicsDBi79718
79719 [Q9BYV7-2]
79720 [Q9BYV7-4]

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9BYV7
PhosphoSitePlusiQ9BYV7

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highly expressed in retinal pigment epithelium. Also expressed in stomach, small intestine, liver, testis, kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, skeletal muscle and prostate (at protein level).1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000197580 Expressed in 158 organ(s), highest expression level in right adrenal gland
CleanExiHS_BCO2
ExpressionAtlasiQ9BYV7 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ9BYV7 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA039825
HPA040695

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000350314

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9BYV7
SMRiQ9BYV7
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the carotenoid oxygenase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1285 Eukaryota
COG3670 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00500000044783
HOGENOMiHOG000232156
HOVERGENiHBG050679
KOiK10252
OMAiWEPQYNT
OrthoDBiEOG091G04WW
PhylomeDBiQ9BYV7
TreeFamiTF314019

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR004294 Carotenoid_Oase
PANTHERiPTHR10543 PTHR10543, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF03055 RPE65, 1 hit

Sequences (5+)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 5 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 5 described isoforms and 5 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9BYV7-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MFFRVFLHFI RSHSATAVDF LPVMVHRLPV FKRYMGNTPQ KKAVFGQCRG
60 70 80 90 100
LPCVAPLLTT VEEAPRGISA RVWGHFPKWL NGSLLRIGPG KFEFGKDKYN
110 120 130 140 150
HWFDGMALLH QFRMAKGTVT YRSKFLQSDT YKANSAKNRI VISEFGTLAL
160 170 180 190 200
PDPCKNVFER FMSRFELPGK AAAMTDNTNV NYVRYKGDYY LCTETNFMNK
210 220 230 240 250
VDIETLEKTE KVDWSKFIAV NGATAHPHYD LDGTAYNMGN SFGPYGFSYK
260 270 280 290 300
VIRVPPEKVD LGETIHGVQV ICSIASTEKG KPSYYHSFGM TRNYIIFIEQ
310 320 330 340 350
PLKMNLWKIA TSKIRGKAFS DGISWEPQCN TRFHVVEKRT GQLLPGRYYS
360 370 380 390 400
KPFVTFHQIN AFEDQGCVII DLCCQDNGRT LEVYQLQNLR KAGEGLDQVH
410 420 430 440 450
NSAAKSFPRR FVLPLNVSLN APEGDNLSPL SYTSASAVKQ ADGTIWCSHE
460 470 480 490 500
NLHQEDLEKE GGIEFPQIYY DRFSGKKYHF FYGCGFRHLV GDSLIKVDVV
510 520 530 540 550
NKTLKVWRED GFYPSEPVFV PAPGTNEEDG GVILSVVITP NQNESNFILV
560 570
LDAKNFEELG RAEVPVQMPY GFHGTFIPI
Length:579
Mass (Da):65,674
Last modified:October 5, 2010 - v5
Checksum:iB14F54FCEC1092CE
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9BYV7-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-34: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:545
Mass (Da):61,526
Checksum:iE09F77FEBB534B65
GO
Isoform 4 (identifier: Q9BYV7-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-34: Missing.
     501-506: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:539
Mass (Da):60,842
Checksum:iDD12ACD19DD37669
GO
Isoform 5 (identifier: Q9BYV7-5) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     173-245: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:506
Mass (Da):57,337
Checksum:i4E62A2574461C1D4
GO
Isoform 6 (identifier: Q9BYV7-6) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-105: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:474
Mass (Da):53,630
Checksum:i3C3EA5F8FFB9CFA0
GO

Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 5 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
E9PS89E9PS89_HUMAN
Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase
BCO2
98Annotation score:
V9GYA9V9GYA9_HUMAN
Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase
BCO2
212Annotation score:
H0YCN8H0YCN8_HUMAN
Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase
BCO2
273Annotation score:
E9PPP9E9PPP9_HUMAN
Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase
BCO2
50Annotation score:
H0YCL7H0YCL7_HUMAN
Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase
BCO2
71Annotation score:

Sequence cautioni

The sequence CAC27994 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti26H → Y in CAC27994 (PubMed:11278918).Curated1
Sequence conflicti177N → D in CAC27994 (PubMed:11278918).Curated1
Sequence conflicti258K → E in CAC27994 (PubMed:11278918).Curated1
Sequence conflicti429P → Q in BAG60185 (PubMed:14702039).Curated1
Sequence conflicti446W → C in CAC27994 (PubMed:11278918).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_047047231L → P3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs10891338Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_047048289G → E. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs17113607Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_047049548I → L5 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs2217401Ensembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0469151 – 105Missing in isoform 6. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST105
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0085991 – 34Missing in isoform 2 and isoform 4. 2 PublicationsAdd BLAST34
Alternative sequenceiVSP_046916173 – 245Missing in isoform 5. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST73
Alternative sequenceiVSP_008600501 – 506Missing in isoform 4. 1 Publication6

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF276432 mRNA Translation: AAK69433.1
AK027801 mRNA Translation: BAB55379.1
AK297853 mRNA Translation: BAG60185.1
EF444956 Genomic DNA Translation: ACA05952.1
AP002884 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471065 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW67192.1
BC041656 mRNA Translation: AAH41656.2
AJ290393 mRNA Translation: CAC27994.1 Different initiation.
CCDSiCCDS41716.1 [Q9BYV7-2]
CCDS58181.1 [Q9BYV7-5]
CCDS58182.1 [Q9BYV7-4]
CCDS58183.1 [Q9BYV7-6]
CCDS8358.2 [Q9BYV7-1]
RefSeqiNP_001032367.2, NM_001037290.2
NP_001243326.1, NM_001256397.1
NP_001243327.1, NM_001256398.1
NP_001243329.1, NM_001256400.1
UniGeneiHs.728325

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000357685; ENSP00000350314; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-1]
ENST00000361053; ENSP00000354338; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-5]
ENST00000438022; ENSP00000414843; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-2]
ENST00000526088; ENSP00000436615; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-4]
ENST00000531169; ENSP00000437053; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-2]
ENST00000532593; ENSP00000431802; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-6]
GeneIDi83875
KEGGihsa:83875
UCSCiuc001pnf.4 human [Q9BYV7-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF276432 mRNA Translation: AAK69433.1
AK027801 mRNA Translation: BAB55379.1
AK297853 mRNA Translation: BAG60185.1
EF444956 Genomic DNA Translation: ACA05952.1
AP002884 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471065 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW67192.1
BC041656 mRNA Translation: AAH41656.2
AJ290393 mRNA Translation: CAC27994.1 Different initiation.
CCDSiCCDS41716.1 [Q9BYV7-2]
CCDS58181.1 [Q9BYV7-5]
CCDS58182.1 [Q9BYV7-4]
CCDS58183.1 [Q9BYV7-6]
CCDS8358.2 [Q9BYV7-1]
RefSeqiNP_001032367.2, NM_001037290.2
NP_001243326.1, NM_001256397.1
NP_001243327.1, NM_001256398.1
NP_001243329.1, NM_001256400.1
UniGeneiHs.728325

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9BYV7
SMRiQ9BYV7
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000350314

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9BYV7
PhosphoSitePlusiQ9BYV7

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiBCO2
DMDMi308153680

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9BYV7
PeptideAtlasiQ9BYV7
PRIDEiQ9BYV7
ProteomicsDBi79718
79719 [Q9BYV7-2]
79720 [Q9BYV7-4]

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000357685; ENSP00000350314; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-1]
ENST00000361053; ENSP00000354338; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-5]
ENST00000438022; ENSP00000414843; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-2]
ENST00000526088; ENSP00000436615; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-4]
ENST00000531169; ENSP00000437053; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-2]
ENST00000532593; ENSP00000431802; ENSG00000197580 [Q9BYV7-6]
GeneIDi83875
KEGGihsa:83875
UCSCiuc001pnf.4 human [Q9BYV7-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi83875
DisGeNETi83875
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000197580.11
GeneCardsiBCO2
HGNCiHGNC:18503 BCO2
HPAiHPA039825
HPA040695
MIMi611740 gene
neXtProtiNX_Q9BYV7
OpenTargetsiENSG00000197580
PharmGKBiPA162377424
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1285 Eukaryota
COG3670 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00500000044783
HOGENOMiHOG000232156
HOVERGENiHBG050679
KOiK10252
OMAiWEPQYNT
OrthoDBiEOG091G04WW
PhylomeDBiQ9BYV7
TreeFamiTF314019

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:G66-33846-MONOMER
BRENDAi1.13.11.71 2681
ReactomeiR-HSA-975634 Retinoid metabolism and transport

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiBCO2 human
GenomeRNAii83875
PROiPR:Q9BYV7
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000197580 Expressed in 158 organ(s), highest expression level in right adrenal gland
CleanExiHS_BCO2
ExpressionAtlasiQ9BYV7 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ9BYV7 HS

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR004294 Carotenoid_Oase
PANTHERiPTHR10543 PTHR10543, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF03055 RPE65, 1 hit
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiBCDO2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9BYV7
Secondary accession number(s): B0YIX5
, B4DNC3, E9PBI8, E9PJJ1, Q8IUS0, Q96JC8, Q96JY5
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 10, 2003
Last sequence update: October 5, 2010
Last modified: November 7, 2018
This is version 140 of the entry and version 5 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. Human chromosome 11
    Human chromosome 11: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
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Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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