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Entry version 165 (13 Feb 2019)
Sequence version 3 (30 Nov 2010)
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Protein

Growth/differentiation factor 15

Gene

GDF15

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Regulates food intake, energy expenditure and body weight in response to metabolic and toxin-induced stresses (PubMed:28953886, PubMed:28846097, PubMed:28846098, PubMed:28846099, PubMed:23468844, PubMed:29046435). Binds to its receptor, GFRAL, and activates GFRAL-expressing neurons localized in the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem (PubMed:28953886, PubMed:28846097, PubMed:28846098, PubMed:28846099). It then triggers the activation of neurons localized within the parabrachial nucleus and central amygdala, which contitutes part of the 'emergency circuit' that shapes feeding responses to stressful conditions (PubMed:28953886). On hepatocytes, inhibits growth hormone signaling (By similarity).By similarity6 Publications

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • cytokine activity Source: GO_Central
  • growth factor activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • protein homodimerization activity Source: UniProtKB
  • transforming growth factor beta receptor binding Source: GO_Central

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionCytokine, Growth factor

Enzyme and pathway databases

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

More...
SIGNORi
Q99988

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Growth/differentiation factor 15Curated
Short name:
GDF-15Curated
Alternative name(s):
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1Curated
Short name:
MIC-11 Publication
NSAID-activated gene 1 protein
Short name:
NAG-1
NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein
Short name:
NRG-1
Placental TGF-beta
Placental bone morphogenetic protein
Prostate differentiation factor
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:GDF15Imported
Synonyms:MIC11 Publication, PDF, PLAB, PTGFB
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 19

Organism-specific databases

Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources

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EuPathDBi
HostDB:ENSG00000130513.6

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

More...
HGNCi
HGNC:30142 GDF15

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

More...
MIMi
605312 gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

More...
neXtProti
NX_Q99988

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

Plasma levels are increased in children with concomitant heart disease and failure to thrive but not in children with heart disease and normal body weight.1 Publication

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology_and_biotech_section">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi225W → A: No effect on interaction with GFRAL. Attenuates GDF15-mediated food-intake inhibition. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi283V → A: Reduces cellular signaling mediated by GFRAL and RET. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi283V → R: Abolishes interaction with GFRAL. Abolishes RET phosphorylation and cellular signaling mediated by GFRAL and RET. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi285I → A: Reduces cellular signaling mediated by GFRAL and RET. Abolishes interaction with GFRAL and GDF15-mediated food-intake inhibition. 2 Publications1

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

More...
DisGeNETi
9518

Open Targets

More...
OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000130513

The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

More...
PharmGKBi
PA134866647

Chemistry databases

ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

More...
ChEMBLi
CHEMBL3120039

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

More...
BioMutai
GDF15

Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

More...
DMDMi
313104195

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 29Sequence analysisAdd BLAST29
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section describes a propeptide, which is a part of a protein that is cleaved during maturation or activation. Once cleaved, a propeptide generally has no independent biological function.<p><a href='/help/propep' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PropeptideiPRO_000003399230 – 194Sequence analysisAdd BLAST165
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_0000033993195 – 308Growth/differentiation factor 15Add BLAST114

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position and type of each covalently attached glycan group (mono-, di-, or polysaccharide).<p><a href='/help/carbohyd' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Glycosylationi70N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi203 ↔ 210Combined sources2 Publications
Disulfide bondi211 ↔ 274Combined sources2 Publications
Disulfide bondi240 ↔ 305Combined sources2 Publications
Disulfide bondi244 ↔ 307Combined sources2 Publications
Disulfide bondi273InterchainCombined sources1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

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EPDi
Q99988

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

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jPOSTi
Q99988

MaxQB - The MaxQuant DataBase

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MaxQBi
Q99988

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

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PaxDbi
Q99988

PeptideAtlas

More...
PeptideAtlasi
Q99988

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
Q99988

ProteomicsDB human proteome resource

More...
ProteomicsDBi
78564

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
Q99988

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

More...
PhosphoSitePlusi
Q99988

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Highly expressed in placenta, with lower levels in prostate and colon and some expression in kidney (PubMed:9348093). Detected in plasma (at protein level) (PubMed:28572090, PubMed:29046435).3 Publications

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Expression is up-regulated by obesity.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSG00000130513 Expressed in 142 organ(s), highest expression level in chorionic villus

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

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ExpressionAtlasi
Q99988 baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
Q99988 HS

Organism-specific databases

Human Protein Atlas

More...
HPAi
CAB062554
HPA011191
HPA070957

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer; disulfide-linked (PubMed:29046435). Interacts with GFRAL; ligand of GFRAL which mediates GDF15 internalization and cellular signaling through interaction with RET (PubMed:28953886, PubMed:28846097, PubMed:28846098, PubMed:28846099).5 Publications

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section%27">Interaction</a> section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
MDFIQ997504EBI-2116863,EBI-724076

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

More...
BioGridi
114895, 13 interactors

CORUM comprehensive resource of mammalian protein complexes

More...
CORUMi
Q99988

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
Q99988, 15 interactors

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9606.ENSP00000252809

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1308
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

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PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

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RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

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PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
5VT2X-ray2.30A/B197-308[»]
5VZ3X-ray1.97A197-308[»]
5VZ4X-ray2.20A197-308[»]

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

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ProteinModelPortali
Q99988

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
Q99988

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the TGF-beta family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG3900 Eukaryota
ENOG410XT8Z LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000161872

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000143379

The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

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HOVERGENi
HBG051718

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q99988

KEGG Orthology (KO)

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KOi
K05504

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
LGWADWV

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
776672at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

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PhylomeDBi
Q99988

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

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TreeFami
TF351787

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

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Gene3Di
2.10.90.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR029034 Cystine-knot_cytokine
IPR001839 TGF-b_C
IPR015615 TGF-beta-rel

The PANTHER Classification System

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PANTHERi
PTHR11848 PTHR11848, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

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Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00019 TGF_beta, 1 hit

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00204 TGFB, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF57501 SSF57501, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS51362 TGF_BETA_2, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence (1+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry has 1 described isoform and 1 potential isoform that is computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Q99988-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MPGQELRTVN GSQMLLVLLV LSWLPHGGAL SLAEASRASF PGPSELHSED
60 70 80 90 100
SRFRELRKRY EDLLTRLRAN QSWEDSNTDL VPAPAVRILT PEVRLGSGGH
110 120 130 140 150
LHLRISRAAL PEGLPEASRL HRALFRLSPT ASRSWDVTRP LRRQLSLARP
160 170 180 190 200
QAPALHLRLS PPPSQSDQLL AESSSARPQL ELHLRPQAAR GRRRARARNG
210 220 230 240 250
DHCPLGPGRC CRLHTVRASL EDLGWADWVL SPREVQVTMC IGACPSQFRA
260 270 280 290 300
ANMHAQIKTS LHRLKPDTVP APCCVPASYN PMVLIQKTDT GVSLQTYDDL

LAKDCHCI
Length:308
Mass (Da):34,140
Last modified:November 30, 2010 - v3
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i2FF3959021B95238
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There is 1 potential isoform mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
A0A0A0MTT8A0A0A0MTT8_HUMAN
Growth/differentiation factor 15
GDF15
113Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti269V → E in AAB88913 (PubMed:9375789).Curated1
Sequence conflicti288T → A in AAF89834 (PubMed:9426002).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_0476469V → L4 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1059519Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_01038648S → T3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1059369Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_047647202H → D1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1058587Ensembl.1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
U88323 mRNA Translation: AAB88913.1
AB000584 mRNA Translation: BAA19151.1
AF019770 mRNA Translation: AAB88673.1
AF003934 mRNA Translation: AAC24456.1
AK291530 mRNA Translation: BAF84219.1
BT019465 mRNA Translation: AAV38272.1
AC008397 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471106 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW84694.1
BC000529 mRNA Translation: AAH00529.1
BC008962 mRNA Translation: AAH08962.1
AF008303 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC39537.1
AF173860 mRNA Translation: AAF89834.1

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

More...
CCDSi
CCDS12376.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

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PIRi
JC5697

NCBI Reference Sequences

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RefSeqi
NP_004855.2, NM_004864.3

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

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UniGenei
Hs.616962

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENST00000252809; ENSP00000252809; ENSG00000130513

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

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GeneIDi
9518

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
hsa:9518

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
uc002niv.2 human

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross_references_section">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U88323 mRNA Translation: AAB88913.1
AB000584 mRNA Translation: BAA19151.1
AF019770 mRNA Translation: AAB88673.1
AF003934 mRNA Translation: AAC24456.1
AK291530 mRNA Translation: BAF84219.1
BT019465 mRNA Translation: AAV38272.1
AC008397 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471106 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW84694.1
BC000529 mRNA Translation: AAH00529.1
BC008962 mRNA Translation: AAH08962.1
AF008303 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC39537.1
AF173860 mRNA Translation: AAF89834.1
CCDSiCCDS12376.1
PIRiJC5697
RefSeqiNP_004855.2, NM_004864.3
UniGeneiHs.616962

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
5VT2X-ray2.30A/B197-308[»]
5VZ3X-ray1.97A197-308[»]
5VZ4X-ray2.20A197-308[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ99988
SMRiQ99988
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114895, 13 interactors
CORUMiQ99988
IntActiQ99988, 15 interactors
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000252809

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3120039

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ99988
PhosphoSitePlusiQ99988

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGDF15
DMDMi313104195

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ99988
jPOSTiQ99988
MaxQBiQ99988
PaxDbiQ99988
PeptideAtlasiQ99988
PRIDEiQ99988
ProteomicsDBi78564

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000252809; ENSP00000252809; ENSG00000130513
GeneIDi9518
KEGGihsa:9518
UCSCiuc002niv.2 human

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
9518
DisGeNETi9518
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000130513.6

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

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GeneCardsi
GDF15

H-Invitational Database, human transcriptome db

More...
H-InvDBi
HIX0014912
HGNCiHGNC:30142 GDF15
HPAiCAB062554
HPA011191
HPA070957
MIMi605312 gene
neXtProtiNX_Q99988
OpenTargetsiENSG00000130513
PharmGKBiPA134866647

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3900 Eukaryota
ENOG410XT8Z LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00940000161872
HOGENOMiHOG000143379
HOVERGENiHBG051718
InParanoidiQ99988
KOiK05504
OMAiLGWADWV
OrthoDBi776672at2759
PhylomeDBiQ99988
TreeFamiTF351787

Enzyme and pathway databases

SIGNORiQ99988

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

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ChiTaRSi
GDF15 human

The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

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GeneWikii
GDF15

Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

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GenomeRNAii
9518

Protein Ontology

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PROi
PR:Q99988

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

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SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000130513 Expressed in 142 organ(s), highest expression level in chorionic villus
ExpressionAtlasiQ99988 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ99988 HS

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.10.90.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR029034 Cystine-knot_cytokine
IPR001839 TGF-b_C
IPR015615 TGF-beta-rel
PANTHERiPTHR11848 PTHR11848, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00019 TGF_beta, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00204 TGFB, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF57501 SSF57501, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51362 TGF_BETA_2, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

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ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGDF15_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q99988
Secondary accession number(s): O14629
, P78360, Q9BWA0, Q9NRT0
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 21, 2001
Last sequence update: November 30, 2010
Last modified: February 13, 2019
This is version 165 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. Human chromosome 19
    Human chromosome 19: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  6. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
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