Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Protein

Phosphopantothenate--cysteine ligase

Gene

Ppcs

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:3 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A from vitamin B5, where cysteine is conjugated to 4'-phosphopantothenate to form 4-phosphopantothenoylcysteine.By similarity

Miscellaneous

The mammalian enzyme has a preference for ATP over CTP, in contrast to the E.coli ortholog.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: coenzyme A biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes CoA from (R)-pantothenate.
Proteins known to be involved in the 5 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Pantothenate kinase 1 (Pank1), Pantothenate kinase 3 (Pank3), Pantothenate kinase 4 (Pank4)
  2. Phosphopantothenate--cysteine ligase (Ppcs)
  3. Phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (Ppcdc)
  4. Bifunctional coenzyme A synthase (Coasy)
  5. Bifunctional coenzyme A synthase (Coasy)
This subpathway is part of the pathway coenzyme A biosynthesis, which is itself part of Cofactor biosynthesis.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes CoA from (R)-pantothenate, the pathway coenzyme A biosynthesis and in Cofactor biosynthesis.

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionLigase

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-MMU-196783 Coenzyme A biosynthesis

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00241;UER00353

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Phosphopantothenate--cysteine ligase (EC:6.3.2.5)
Alternative name(s):
Phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase
Short name:
PPC synthetase
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:Ppcs
Synonyms:Coab
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

Mouse genome database (MGD) from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

More...
MGIi
MGI:1915237 Ppcs

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section indicates that the initiator methionine is cleaved from the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/init_met' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Initiator methionineiRemovedBy similarity
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001820412 – 311Phosphopantothenate--cysteine ligaseAdd BLAST310

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei2N-acetylalanineBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation

Proteomic databases

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

More...
EPDi
Q8VDG5

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q8VDG5

PeptideAtlas

More...
PeptideAtlasi
Q8VDG5

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
Q8VDG5

2D gel databases

REPRODUCTION-2DPAGE

More...
REPRODUCTION-2DPAGEi
IPI00135484

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
Q8VDG5

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

More...
PhosphoSitePlusi
Q8VDG5

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSMUSG00000028636 Expressed in 255 organ(s), highest expression level in urinary bladder urothelium

CleanEx database of gene expression profiles

More...
CleanExi
MM_PPCS

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
Q8VDG5 MM

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
Q8VDG5, 1 interactor

Molecular INTeraction database

More...
MINTi
Q8VDG5

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
10090.ENSMUSP00000030385

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

More...
ProteinModelPortali
Q8VDG5

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q8VDG5

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the PPC synthetase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG2728 Eukaryota
COG0452 LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000153762

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000194726

The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

More...
HOVERGENi
HBG049438

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q8VDG5

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K01922

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
QPFSRHY

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
EOG091G0R3S

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q8VDG5

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF105615

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
3.40.50.10300, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR035929 CoaB-like_sf
IPR007085 DNA/pantothenate-metab_flavo_C

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF04127 DFP, 2 hits

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF102645 SSF102645, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket
Isoform 1 (identifier: Q8VDG5-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MAEMDLVAEL PRPAGAARWA EVMARFAARL GEQGRRVVLI TSGGTKVPLE
60 70 80 90 100
ARAVRFLDNF SSGRRGAASA EVFLAAGYGV LFLYRARSAF PYAHRFPPQA
110 120 130 140 150
WLSALRPSGP AQSGKLSLEA EENALPGFAA ALQSYQEAAA AGTFLAVEFT
160 170 180 190 200
TLADYLHLLQ AAALALSPLG SSAMFYLAAA VSDFYIPVSE MPEHKIHSSG
210 220 230 240 250
GPLQITMKMV PKMLSPLVKD WAPKAFVVSF KLETDPDIII SRARNALEVY
260 270 280 290 300
QHQVVVANIL ESIKSFVIIV TKDSETELLL SEEEVAKGLV IEEKIVDDLR
310
SRHTAFICDK N
Length:311
Mass (Da):33,794
Last modified:March 1, 2002 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i082E03CB2E3A11E6
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q8VDG5-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-173: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:138
Mass (Da):15,544
Checksum:i923616BF66AB774E
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting. The information stored in this subsection is used to automatically construct alternative protein sequence(s) for display.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_0102441 – 173Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST173

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AK006290 mRNA Translation: BAB24509.1
AK159952 mRNA Translation: BAE35508.1
BC021894 mRNA Translation: AAH21894.1

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

More...
CCDSi
CCDS18581.1 [Q8VDG5-1]

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_080770.2, NM_026494.3 [Q8VDG5-1]
XP_017175397.1, XM_017319908.1

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

More...
UniGenei
Mm.27245

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENSMUST00000030385; ENSMUSP00000030385; ENSMUSG00000028636 [Q8VDG5-1]
ENSMUST00000106316; ENSMUSP00000101923; ENSMUSG00000028636 [Q8VDG5-2]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
106564

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
mmu:106564

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
uc008uml.1 mouse [Q8VDG5-2]
uc008umm.1 mouse [Q8VDG5-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AK006290 mRNA Translation: BAB24509.1
AK159952 mRNA Translation: BAE35508.1
BC021894 mRNA Translation: AAH21894.1
CCDSiCCDS18581.1 [Q8VDG5-1]
RefSeqiNP_080770.2, NM_026494.3 [Q8VDG5-1]
XP_017175397.1, XM_017319908.1
UniGeneiMm.27245

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ8VDG5
SMRiQ8VDG5
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiQ8VDG5, 1 interactor
MINTiQ8VDG5
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000030385

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ8VDG5
PhosphoSitePlusiQ8VDG5

2D gel databases

REPRODUCTION-2DPAGEiIPI00135484

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ8VDG5
PaxDbiQ8VDG5
PeptideAtlasiQ8VDG5
PRIDEiQ8VDG5

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000030385; ENSMUSP00000030385; ENSMUSG00000028636 [Q8VDG5-1]
ENSMUST00000106316; ENSMUSP00000101923; ENSMUSG00000028636 [Q8VDG5-2]
GeneIDi106564
KEGGimmu:106564
UCSCiuc008uml.1 mouse [Q8VDG5-2]
uc008umm.1 mouse [Q8VDG5-1]

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
79717
MGIiMGI:1915237 Ppcs

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG2728 Eukaryota
COG0452 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00940000153762
HOGENOMiHOG000194726
HOVERGENiHBG049438
InParanoidiQ8VDG5
KOiK01922
OMAiQPFSRHY
OrthoDBiEOG091G0R3S
PhylomeDBiQ8VDG5
TreeFamiTF105615

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayi
UPA00241;UER00353

ReactomeiR-MMU-196783 Coenzyme A biosynthesis

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q8VDG5

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

More...
SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000028636 Expressed in 255 organ(s), highest expression level in urinary bladder urothelium
CleanExiMM_PPCS
GenevisibleiQ8VDG5 MM

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.10300, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR035929 CoaB-like_sf
IPR007085 DNA/pantothenate-metab_flavo_C
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF04127 DFP, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF102645 SSF102645, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiPPCS_MOUSE
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8VDG5
Secondary accession number(s): Q3TVW0, Q9D376, Q9DA06
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 10, 2004
Last sequence update: March 1, 2002
Last modified: December 5, 2018
This is version 123 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

We'd like to inform you that we have updated our Privacy Notice to comply with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018.

Do not show this banner again