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Entry version 112 (11 Dec 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Jun 2002)
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Protein

Polyamine aminopropyltransferase

Gene

speE

Organism
Pyrococcus furiosus (strain ATCC 43587 / DSM 3638 / JCM 8422 / Vc1)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines which are thought to support the growth of thermophilic microorganisms under high-temperature conditions. It seems that long-chain and branched-chain of polyamines effectively stabilize DNA and RNA, respectively. Catalyzes the irreversible transfer of a propylamine group from the amino donor S-adenosylmethioninamine (decarboxy-AdoMet) to various amine acceptors such as agmatine, cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane), putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) and 1,3-diaminopropane. The biosynthesis of norspermine and thermospermine from sym-norspermidine and spermidine has been also observed, but with a very low activity. The reaction involves a nucleophilic attack on the C-3 methylene of the propylamine moiety adjacent to the positively charged sulfur of decarboxy-AdoMet.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

Kcat is 2.09 sec(-1) for aminopropyl transferase activity with cadaverine as amine acceptor. Kcat is 0.18 sec(-1) for aminopropyl transferase activity with putrescine as amine acceptor. Kcat is 0.1 sec(-1) for aminopropyl transferase activity with agmatine as amine acceptor. Kcat is 0.06 sec(-1) for aminopropyl transferase activity with 1,3-diaminopropane as amine acceptor.1 Publication
  1. KM=7.6 µM for agmatine1 Publication
  2. KM=1877 µM for 1,3-diaminopropane1 Publication
  3. KM=3767 µM for cadaverine1 Publication
  4. KM=7703 µM for putrescine1 Publication

    Temperature dependencei

    Optimum temperature is 90 degrees Celsius. The enzyme is highly thermophilic. 50% activity is still observable at 103 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: spermidine biosynthesis

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes spermidine from putrescine.UniRule annotation
    Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Polyamine aminopropyltransferase (speE), Polyamine aminopropyltransferase (speE)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway spermidine biosynthesis, which is itself part of Amine and polyamine biosynthesis.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes spermidine from putrescine, the pathway spermidine biosynthesis and in Amine and polyamine biosynthesis.

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei7PolyamineUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei31S-adenosylmethioninamineUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei62PolyamineUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei86PolyamineUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei105S-adenosylmethioninamineUniRule annotation1
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei159Proton acceptorUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei166S-adenosylmethioninamide; via carbonyl oxygen1

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionTransferase
    Biological processPolyamine biosynthesis, Spermidine biosynthesis

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    More...
    BioCyci
    PFUR186497:G1FZR-131-MONOMER

    BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

    More...
    BRENDAi
    2.5.1.104 5243

    SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

    More...
    SABIO-RKi
    Q8U4G1

    UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

    More...
    UniPathwayi
    UPA00248;UER00314

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Polyamine aminopropyltransferase1 PublicationUniRule annotation
    Alternative name(s):
    1,3-diaminopropane aminopropyltransferase1 Publication (EC:2.5.1.231 Publication)
    Agmatine aminopropyltransferase1 Publication
    Agmatine/cadaverine aminopropyltransferase1 Publication
    Cadaverine aminopropyltransferase1 Publication (EC:2.5.1.-1 Publication)
    N(1)-aminopropylagmatine synthase1 Publication (EC:2.5.1.1041 Publication)
    Putrescine aminopropyltransferaseUniRule annotation1 Publication (EC:2.5.1.16UniRule annotation1 Publication)
    Short name:
    PAPTUniRule annotation
    Spermidine synthaseUniRule annotation1 Publication
    Short name:
    SPDSUniRule annotation
    Short name:
    SPDSYUniRule annotation
    Sym-norspermidine synthase1 Publication
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:speEUniRule annotation
    Ordered Locus Names:PF0127
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiPyrococcus furiosus (strain ATCC 43587 / DSM 3638 / JCM 8422 / Vc1)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri186497 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiArchaeaEuryarchaeotaThermococciThermococcalesThermococcaceaePyrococcus
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
    • UP000001013 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome

    <p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001565301 – 281Polyamine aminopropyltransferaseAdd BLAST281

    Proteomic databases

    PRoteomics IDEntifications database

    More...
    PRIDEi
    Q8U4G1

    <p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

    At temperatures higher than 95 degrees Celsius or by oxidative shock.1 Publication

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.

    1 Publication

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRING: functional protein association networks

    More...
    STRINGi
    186497.PF0127

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1281
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details

    3D structure databases

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    Q8U4G1

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

    More...
    PDBe-KBi
    Search...

    Miscellaneous databases

    Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

    More...
    EvolutionaryTracei
    Q8U4G1

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family_and_domains_section">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini6 – 238PABSUniRule annotationAdd BLAST233

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni51 – 52Polyamine bindingUniRule annotation2
    Regioni142 – 143S-adenosylmethioninamine bindingUniRule annotation2
    Regioni160 – 162Polyamine bindingUniRule annotation3

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the spermidine/spermine synthase family.UniRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

    More...
    eggNOGi
    arCOG00050 Archaea
    COG0421 LUCA

    The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

    More...
    HOGENOMi
    HOG000256146

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K00797

    Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

    More...
    OMAi
    SDMWPGQ

    Database of Orthologous Groups

    More...
    OrthoDBi
    77175at2157

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

    More...
    Gene3Di
    2.30.140.10, 1 hit

    HAMAP database of protein families

    More...
    HAMAPi
    MF_00198 Spermidine_synth, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR030374 PABS
    IPR030373 PABS_CS
    IPR029063 SAM-dependent_MTases
    IPR001045 Spermi_synthase
    IPR035246 Spermidine_synt_N
    IPR037163 Spermidine_synt_N_sf

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF17284 Spermine_synt_N, 1 hit

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    More...
    SUPFAMi
    SSF53335 SSF53335, 1 hit

    TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

    More...
    TIGRFAMsi
    TIGR00417 speE, 1 hit

    PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

    More...
    PROSITEi
    View protein in PROSITE
    PS01330 PABS_1, 1 hit
    PS51006 PABS_2, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q8U4G1-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MERAFIEWYP RGYGVAFKIK KKIYEKLSKY QKIEVYETEG FGRLLALDGT
    60 70 80 90 100
    VQLVTLGERS YHEPLVHPAM LAHPKPKRVL VIGGGDGGTV REVLQHDVDE
    110 120 130 140 150
    VIMVEIDEDV IMVSKDLIKI DNGLLEAMLN GKHEKAKLTI GDGFEFIKNN
    160 170 180 190 200
    RGFDVIIADS TDPVGPAKVL FSEEFYRYVY DALNNPGIYV TQAGSVYLFT
    210 220 230 240 250
    DELISAYKEM KKVFDRVYYY SFPVIGYASP WAFLVGVKGD IDFTKIDRER
    260 270 280
    AKKLQLEYYD PLMHETLFQM PKYIRETLQR L
    Length:281
    Mass (Da):32,334
    Last modified:June 1, 2002 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i72C97AE45BE1C487
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AE009950 Genomic DNA Translation: AAL80251.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences

    More...
    RefSeqi
    WP_011011239.1, NC_003413.1

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

    More...
    EnsemblBacteriai
    AAL80251; AAL80251; PF0127

    Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    More...
    GeneIDi
    41711914

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    pfu:PF0127

    Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

    More...
    PATRICi
    fig|186497.12.peg.132

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AE009950 Genomic DNA Translation: AAL80251.1
    RefSeqiWP_011011239.1, NC_003413.1

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:

    Protein Data Bank Europe

    More...
    PDBei

    Protein Data Bank RCSB

    More...
    RCSB PDBi

    Protein Data Bank Japan

    More...
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    1MJFX-ray1.80A/B1-281[»]
    SMRiQ8U4G1
    ModBaseiSearch...
    PDBe-KBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRINGi186497.PF0127

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEiQ8U4G1

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAL80251; AAL80251; PF0127
    GeneIDi41711914
    KEGGipfu:PF0127
    PATRICifig|186497.12.peg.132

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiarCOG00050 Archaea
    COG0421 LUCA
    HOGENOMiHOG000256146
    KOiK00797
    OMAiSDMWPGQ
    OrthoDBi77175at2157

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00248;UER00314
    BioCyciPFUR186497:G1FZR-131-MONOMER
    BRENDAi2.5.1.104 5243
    SABIO-RKiQ8U4G1

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiQ8U4G1

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di2.30.140.10, 1 hit
    HAMAPiMF_00198 Spermidine_synth, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR030374 PABS
    IPR030373 PABS_CS
    IPR029063 SAM-dependent_MTases
    IPR001045 Spermi_synthase
    IPR035246 Spermidine_synt_N
    IPR037163 Spermidine_synt_N_sf
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF17284 Spermine_synt_N, 1 hit
    SUPFAMiSSF53335 SSF53335, 1 hit
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR00417 speE, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS01330 PABS_1, 1 hit
    PS51006 PABS_2, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiSPEE_PYRFU
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8U4G1
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 10, 2002
    Last sequence update: June 1, 2002
    Last modified: December 11, 2019
    This is version 112 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    2. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
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