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Entry version 106 (08 May 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Jun 2002)
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Protein

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 2

Gene

ARNTL2

Organism
Gallus gallus (Chicken)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:3 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Transcriptional activator which forms a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots 'circa' (about) and 'diem' (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for 'timegivers'). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndromes and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK|NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1|ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1/2 and RORA/B/G, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. The preferred binding motif for the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer is 5'-CACGTGA-3', which contains a flanking Ala residue in addition to the canonical 6-nucleotide E-box sequence. CLOCK specifically binds to the half-site 5'-CAC-3', while ARNTL binds to the half-site 5'-GTGA-3'.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections (‘Function’, ‘PTM / Processing’, ‘Pathology and Biotech’) according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei145Important for interaction with CLOCKBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionActivator, DNA-binding
Biological processBiological rhythms, Transcription, Transcription regulation

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 2
Alternative name(s):
Brain and muscle ARNT-like 2
Short name:
cBMAL2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:ARNTL2
Synonyms:BMAL2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiGallus gallus (Chicken)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9031 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiArchelosauriaArchosauriaDinosauriaSaurischiaTheropodaCoelurosauriaAvesNeognathaeGalloanseraeGalliformesPhasianidaePhasianinaeGallus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000539 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unplaced

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00002736331 – 622Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 2Add BLAST622

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q8QGQ7

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
Q8QGQ7

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed in the pineal gland.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Expression in the pineal gland exhibits circadian rhythm. Maximum levels expressed at CT14, and between ZT14 and ZT18.1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Component of the circadian core oscillator, which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK, or NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, CSNK1D and/or CSNK1E, TIMELESS and the PER proteins.

Interacts directly with CLOCK to form the ARNTL2/BMAL2-CLOCK transactivator. Can form heterodimers or homodimers which interact directly with CLOCK to form the transcription activator.

1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei97Interaction with E-box DNABy similarity1
Sitei101Interaction with E-box DNABy similarity1
Sitei105Interaction with E-box DNABy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9031.ENSGALP00000022780

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q8QGQ7

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family_and_domains_section">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini92 – 145bHLHPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST54
Domaini163 – 235PAS 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST73
Domaini342 – 412PAS 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST71
Domaini417 – 460PACAdd BLAST44

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG3561 Eukaryota
ENOG410XRJI LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000234379

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q8QGQ7

KEGG Orthology (KO)

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KOi
K09099

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
331262at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q8QGQ7

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd00083 HLH, 1 hit
cd00130 PAS, 2 hits

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
4.10.280.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR011598 bHLH_dom
IPR036638 HLH_DNA-bd_sf
IPR001067 Nuc_translocat
IPR000014 PAS
IPR035965 PAS-like_dom_sf
IPR013767 PAS_fold

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00010 HLH, 1 hit
PF00989 PAS, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00785 NCTRNSLOCATR

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00353 HLH, 1 hit
SM00091 PAS, 2 hits

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF47459 SSF47459, 1 hit
SSF55785 SSF55785, 2 hits

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR00229 sensory_box, 2 hits

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS50888 BHLH, 1 hit
PS50112 PAS, 2 hits

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q8QGQ7-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MAEAGVGSAE GAEEERRAVE ENFPVDGNSC IASGVPSLMN PITKPATTSF
60 70 80 90 100
NNSVVEIPRK RKGSDSDNQD TVEVDGDPQK RNEDEEHLKI KDFREAHSQT
110 120 130 140 150
EKRRRDKMNN LIEELSAMIP QCNPMARKLD KLTVLRMAVQ HLKSLKGSTS
160 170 180 190 200
SYTEVRYKPS FLKDDELRQL ILRAADGFLF VVGCNRGKIL FVSESVCKIL
210 220 230 240 250
NYDQTSLIGQ SLFDYLHPKD VAKVKEQLSS SDVSPREKLV DGKTGLQVHT
260 270 280 290 300
DFQAGPARLN SGARRSFFCR IKCSRTTVKE EKECLPNPKK KDHRKYCTIH
310 320 330 340 350
CTGYMKNWPP SEVGVEEEND VEKNSSNFNC LVAIGRLHPY IVPQKSGEIK
360 370 380 390 400
VKATEFVTRF AMDGKFVYVD QRATAILGYL PQELLGTSCY EYCHQDDHNH
410 420 430 440 450
LAEKHKEVLQ NKEKVFTNSY KFRAKDGSFI TLKSQWFSFM NPWTKELEYI
460 470 480 490 500
VSNNTVVLGH NESAEEQVSY GSQPAEGAVK QSLVSVPGMS SGTVLGAGSI
510 520 530 540 550
GTEIANEILE LQRLHSSPPG ELSPSHLLRK SPSPALTVNC SNVPNKELIQ
560 570 580 590 600
LCPSEAEVLE TSEQNQGAIP FPSNEPLLGG NSQLDFAICE NDDTAMTALM
610 620
NYLEADGGLG DPAELSDIQW AL
Length:622
Mass (Da):69,132
Last modified:June 1, 2002 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i25CF08318CECD6C1
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF246958 mRNA Translation: AAL98707.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_989464.1, NM_204133.1

Genome annotation databases

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
373925

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
gga:373925

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF246958 mRNA Translation: AAL98707.1
RefSeqiNP_989464.1, NM_204133.1

3D structure databases

SMRiQ8QGQ7
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9031.ENSGALP00000022780

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ8QGQ7
PRIDEiQ8QGQ7

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi373925
KEGGigga:373925

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
56938

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3561 Eukaryota
ENOG410XRJI LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000234379
InParanoidiQ8QGQ7
KOiK09099
OrthoDBi331262at2759
PhylomeDBiQ8QGQ7

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q8QGQ7

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00083 HLH, 1 hit
cd00130 PAS, 2 hits
Gene3Di4.10.280.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR011598 bHLH_dom
IPR036638 HLH_DNA-bd_sf
IPR001067 Nuc_translocat
IPR000014 PAS
IPR035965 PAS-like_dom_sf
IPR013767 PAS_fold
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00010 HLH, 1 hit
PF00989 PAS, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00785 NCTRNSLOCATR
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00353 HLH, 1 hit
SM00091 PAS, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF47459 SSF47459, 1 hit
SSF55785 SSF55785, 2 hits
TIGRFAMsiTIGR00229 sensory_box, 2 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS50888 BHLH, 1 hit
PS50112 PAS, 2 hits

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiBMAL2_CHICK
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8QGQ7
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 23, 2007
Last sequence update: June 1, 2002
Last modified: May 8, 2019
This is version 106 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome
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