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Entry version 122 (02 Jun 2021)
Sequence version 1 (01 Oct 2002)
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Protein

Malate dehydrogenase

Gene

mdh

Organism
Corynebacterium glutamicum (strain ATCC 13032 / DSM 20300 / BCRC 11384 / JCM 1318 / LMG 3730 / NCIMB 10025)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate. Exhibits higher catalytic efficiency for oxaloacetate reduction than for malate oxidation in vitro. Almost equally active both for NADH and NADPH on the bases of the kcat values at pH 6.5, but catalytic efficiency for oxaloacetate reduction is 50-fold higher with NADH.

1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Citrate activates the enzyme in the oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate and inhibits it in the reverse reaction.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

kcat is 360 sec(-1) for NADH-dependent reduction of oxaloacetate. kcat is 150 sec(-1) for NADPH-dependent reduction of oxaloacetate. kcat is 140 sec(-1) for NAD+-dependent oxidation of malate.1 Publication
  1. KM=0.025 mM for oxaloacetate (at pH 6.5 in the presence of NADH)1 Publication
  2. KM=0.55 mM for oxaloacetate (at pH 6.5 in the presence of NADPH)1 Publication
  3. KM=0.07 mM for NADH (at pH 6.5)1 Publication
  4. KM=0.25 mM for NADPH (at pH 6.5)1 Publication
  5. KM=0.8 mM for malate (at pH 10.5 in the presence of NAD)1 Publication
  6. KM=0.4 mM for NAD (at pH 10.5)1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei97SubstrateUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei103SubstrateUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei110NADUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei117NADUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei136SubstrateUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei167SubstrateUniRule annotation1
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei192Proton acceptorUniRule annotation1

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi16 – 22NADUniRule annotation7
    Nucleotide bindingi134 – 136NADUniRule annotation3

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionOxidoreductase
    Biological processTricarboxylic acid cycle
    LigandNAD

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    More...
    BioCyci
    CORYNE:G18NG-11977-MONOMER

    BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

    More...
    BRENDAi
    1.1.1.37, 960

    SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

    More...
    SABIO-RKi
    Q8NN33

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Malate dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.1.1.37UniRule annotation1 Publication)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:mdhUniRule annotation
    Ordered Locus Names:Cgl2380, cg2613
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiCorynebacterium glutamicum (strain ATCC 13032 / DSM 20300 / BCRC 11384 / JCM 1318 / LMG 3730 / NCIMB 10025)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri196627 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaActinobacteriaCorynebacterialesCorynebacteriaceaeCorynebacterium
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
    • UP000000582 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM / Processing</a> section indicates that the initiator methionine is cleaved from the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/init_met' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Initiator methionineiRemoved1 Publication
    <p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001133642 – 328Malate dehydrogenaseAdd BLAST327

    2D gel databases

    The World-2DPAGE database

    More...
    World-2DPAGEi
    0001:Q8NN33

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

    Homotetramer.

    1 Publication

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRING: functional protein association networks

    More...
    STRINGi
    196627.cg2613

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1328
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details

    3D structure databases

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    Q8NN33

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

    More...
    PDBe-KBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. MDH type 2 family.UniRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

    More...
    eggNOGi
    COG0039, Bacteria

    The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

    More...
    HOGENOMi
    CLU_040727_2_0_11

    Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

    More...
    OMAi
    TKGMERG

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

    More...
    Gene3Di
    3.90.110.10, 1 hit

    HAMAP database of protein families

    More...
    HAMAPi
    MF_01517, Malate_dehydrog_2, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR001557, L-lactate/malate_DH
    IPR022383, Lactate/malate_DH_C
    IPR001236, Lactate/malate_DH_N
    IPR015955, Lactate_DH/Glyco_Ohase_4_C
    IPR010945, Malate_DH_type2
    IPR036291, NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf

    The PANTHER Classification System

    More...
    PANTHERi
    PTHR23382, PTHR23382, 1 hit

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF02866, Ldh_1_C, 1 hit
    PF00056, Ldh_1_N, 1 hit

    PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

    More...
    PIRSFi
    PIRSF000102, Lac_mal_DH, 1 hit

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    More...
    SUPFAMi
    SSF51735, SSF51735, 1 hit
    SSF56327, SSF56327, 1 hit

    TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

    More...
    TIGRFAMsi
    TIGR01759, MalateDH-SF1, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    Q8NN33-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MNSPQNVSTK KVTVTGAAGQ ISYSLLWRIA NGEVFGTDTP VELKLLEIPQ
    60 70 80 90 100
    ALGGAEGVAM ELLDSAFPLL RNITITADAN EAFDGANAAF LVGAKPRGKG
    110 120 130 140 150
    EERADLLANN GKIFGPQGKA INDNAADDIR VLVVGNPANT NALIASAAAP
    160 170 180 190 200
    DVPASRFNAM MRLDHNRAIS QLATKLGRGS AEFNNIVVWG NHSATQFPDI
    210 220 230 240 250
    TYATVGGEKV TDLVDHDWYV EEFIPRVANR GAEIIEVRGK SSAASAASSA
    260 270 280 290 300
    IDHMRDWVQG TEAWSSAAIP STGAYGIPEG IFVGLPTVSR NGEWEIVEGL
    310 320
    EISDFQRARI DANAQELQAE REAVRDLL
    Length:328
    Mass (Da):34,908
    Last modified:October 1, 2002 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i1B725310F07A7EB0
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti274A → G in CAC83073 (Ref. 1) Curated1

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AJ303072 Genomic DNA Translation: CAC83073.1
    BA000036 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB99773.1
    BX927155 Genomic DNA Translation: CAF21045.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences

    More...
    RefSeqi
    NP_601581.1, NC_003450.3
    WP_011015079.1, NC_006958.1

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

    More...
    EnsemblBacteriai
    BAB99773; BAB99773; BAB99773

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    cgb:cg2613
    cgl:NCgl2297

    Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

    More...
    PATRICi
    fig|196627.13.peg.2315

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AJ303072 Genomic DNA Translation: CAC83073.1
    BA000036 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB99773.1
    BX927155 Genomic DNA Translation: CAF21045.1
    RefSeqiNP_601581.1, NC_003450.3
    WP_011015079.1, NC_006958.1

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:

    Protein Data Bank Europe

    More...
    PDBei

    Protein Data Bank RCSB

    More...
    RCSB PDBi

    Protein Data Bank Japan

    More...
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    6ITKX-ray2.00A/B1-328[»]
    SMRiQ8NN33
    ModBaseiSearch...
    PDBe-KBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRINGi196627.cg2613

    2D gel databases

    World-2DPAGEi0001:Q8NN33

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiBAB99773; BAB99773; BAB99773
    KEGGicgb:cg2613
    cgl:NCgl2297
    PATRICifig|196627.13.peg.2315

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG0039, Bacteria
    HOGENOMiCLU_040727_2_0_11
    OMAiTKGMERG

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciCORYNE:G18NG-11977-MONOMER
    BRENDAi1.1.1.37, 960
    SABIO-RKiQ8NN33

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.90.110.10, 1 hit
    HAMAPiMF_01517, Malate_dehydrog_2, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR001557, L-lactate/malate_DH
    IPR022383, Lactate/malate_DH_C
    IPR001236, Lactate/malate_DH_N
    IPR015955, Lactate_DH/Glyco_Ohase_4_C
    IPR010945, Malate_DH_type2
    IPR036291, NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf
    PANTHERiPTHR23382, PTHR23382, 1 hit
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF02866, Ldh_1_C, 1 hit
    PF00056, Ldh_1_N, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF000102, Lac_mal_DH, 1 hit
    SUPFAMiSSF51735, SSF51735, 1 hit
    SSF56327, SSF56327, 1 hit
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR01759, MalateDH-SF1, 1 hit

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiMDH_CORGL
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8NN33
    Secondary accession number(s): Q8VNW2
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 7, 2004
    Last sequence update: October 1, 2002
    Last modified: June 2, 2021
    This is version 122 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
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