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Entry version 94 (11 Dec 2019)
Sequence version 2 (10 Feb 2009)
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Protein

Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase

Gene

kh

Organism
Aedes aegypti (Yellowfever mosquito) (Culex aegypti)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) to form 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine (L-3OHKyn). Required for synthesis of quinolinic acid.UniRule annotation1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

FADUniRule annotation

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Inhibited by pyridoxal phosphate and chloride ions.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.89 mM for L-kynurenine1 Publication
  2. KM=0.82 mM for NADPH1 Publication
  1. Vmax=3550 nmol/min/mg enzyme toward L-kynurenine1 Publication
  2. Vmax=3821 nmol/min/mg enzyme toward NAPDH1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is between 7.0 and 7.5.1 Publication

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature is 40 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: NAD(+) biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes quinolinate from L-kynurenine.UniRule annotation
Proteins known to be involved in the 3 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (kh)
  2. no protein annotated in this organism
  3. no protein annotated in this organism
This subpathway is part of the pathway NAD(+) biosynthesis, which is itself part of Cofactor biosynthesis.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes quinolinate from L-kynurenine, the pathway NAD(+) biosynthesis and in Cofactor biosynthesis.

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionMonooxygenase, Oxidoreductase
Biological processPyridine nucleotide biosynthesis
LigandFAD, Flavoprotein, NADP

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

More...
BRENDAi
1.14.13.9 149

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00253;UER00328

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Kynurenine 3-monooxygenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.14.13.9UniRule annotation)
Alternative name(s):
Kynurenine 3-hydroxylaseUniRule annotation
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:kh
ORF Names:AAEL008879
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiAedes aegypti (Yellowfever mosquito) (Culex aegypti)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri7159 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraHolometabolaDipteraNematoceraCulicoideaCulicidaeCulicinaeAediniAedesStegomyia
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000008820 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unassembled WGS sequence

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.<p><a href='/help/transmem' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transmembranei397 – 420HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST24
Transmembranei433 – 455HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST23

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Membrane, Mitochondrion

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00003619121 – 476Kynurenine 3-monooxygenaseAdd BLAST476

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
7159.AAEL008879-PA

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q86PM2

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the aromatic-ring hydroxylase family. KMO subfamily.UniRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG2614 Eukaryota
COG0654 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000251788

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q86PM2

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K00486

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
NLAMSNR

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
462247at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q86PM2

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
3.50.50.60, 1 hit

HAMAP database of protein families

More...
HAMAPi
MF_01971 Kynurenine_monooxygenase, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR002938 FAD-bd
IPR036188 FAD/NAD-bd_sf
IPR027545 Kynurenine_monooxygenase

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF01494 FAD_binding_3, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51905 SSF51905, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket
Isoform 1 (identifier: Q86PM2-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the <div> <p><b>What is the canonical sequence?</b><p><a href='/help/canonical_and_isoforms' target='_top'>More...</a></p>canonicali sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MTAQYKQTNT NGLTARNLNV AVVGGGLVGS LFALHLGKKG HTVDLYEYRE
60 70 80 90 100
DIRTAELVIG RSINLALSAR GRKALAEVGL EDALLQHGIP MKGRMLHDLK
110 120 130 140 150
GNRKIVPYDA NTNQCIYSVG RKHLNEVLLD AAEKYPNIHL YFNKKLQSAN
160 170 180 190 200
LDEGEMSFID PTTKESTHTK ADLIVGCDGA YSAVRKEIVK RPGYDYSQTY
210 220 230 240 250
IEHGYLELCI PPTKDGDFAM PHNYLHIWPR GKFMMIALPN QDRTWTVTLF
260 270 280 290 300
MPFTNFNSIK CDGDLLKFFR TYFPDAIDLI GRERLVKDFF KTRPQSLVMI
310 320 330 340 350
KCKPYNVGGK AVIIGDAAHA MVPFYGQGMN AGFEDCTVLT ELFNQHGSDV
360 370 380 390 400
DRILAEFSDT RWEDAHSICD LAMYNYVEMR DLVTKRSYLF RKKLDELLYW
410 420 430 440 450
MLPNTWVPLY NSVSFSHMRY SKCIANRKWQ DKILTRVLYC CSITAVAAAG
460 470
YFGYKYGNMD LVQHYSSSVL QLLKLK
Length:476
Mass (Da):54,232
Last modified:February 10, 2009 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iDC41758284BC6C6F
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q86PM2-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     379-432: Missing.

Show »
Length:422
Mass (Da):47,492
Checksum:i8B5F1C72D89EF4D0
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti13L → S in AAL37368 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti113N → H in AAL37368 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti169T → A in AAL37368 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti260K → Q in AAL37368 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti286V → F in AAL37368 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti312V → A in AAL37368 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti345Q → E in AAL37368 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti407V → F in AAL37368 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti441C → S in AAL37368 (Ref. 1) Curated1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_036237379 – 432Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST54

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF325508 mRNA Translation: AAL37368.1
AY194224 mRNA Translation: AAO27575.1
AY194225 mRNA Translation: AAO27576.1
CH477539 Genomic DNA Translation: EAT39312.1
CH477539 Genomic DNA Translation: EAT39313.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
XP_001653516.1, XM_001653466.1
XP_001653517.1, XM_001653467.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl metazoan genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblMetazoai
AAEL008879-RA; AAEL008879-PA; AAEL008879 [Q86PM2-1]
AAEL008879-RB; AAEL008879-PB; AAEL008879 [Q86PM2-2]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
5571188

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
aag:5571188

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF325508 mRNA Translation: AAL37368.1
AY194224 mRNA Translation: AAO27575.1
AY194225 mRNA Translation: AAO27576.1
CH477539 Genomic DNA Translation: EAT39312.1
CH477539 Genomic DNA Translation: EAT39313.1
RefSeqiXP_001653516.1, XM_001653466.1
XP_001653517.1, XM_001653467.1

3D structure databases

SMRiQ86PM2
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi7159.AAEL008879-PA

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiAAEL008879-RA; AAEL008879-PA; AAEL008879 [Q86PM2-1]
AAEL008879-RB; AAEL008879-PB; AAEL008879 [Q86PM2-2]
GeneIDi5571188
KEGGiaag:5571188

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG2614 Eukaryota
COG0654 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000251788
InParanoidiQ86PM2
KOiK00486
OMAiNLAMSNR
OrthoDBi462247at2759
PhylomeDBiQ86PM2

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00253;UER00328
BRENDAi1.14.13.9 149

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.50.50.60, 1 hit
HAMAPiMF_01971 Kynurenine_monooxygenase, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002938 FAD-bd
IPR036188 FAD/NAD-bd_sf
IPR027545 Kynurenine_monooxygenase
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01494 FAD_binding_3, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF51905 SSF51905, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiKMO_AEDAE
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q86PM2
Secondary accession number(s): Q16XF6, Q86PM3, Q8WSB2
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 10, 2009
Last sequence update: February 10, 2009
Last modified: December 11, 2019
This is version 94 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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