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Entry version 77 (18 Sep 2019)
Sequence version 1 (11 Oct 2004)
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Protein

Rhodopsin

Gene

RHO

Organism
Loxodonta africana (African elephant)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Photoreceptor required for image-forming vision at low light intensity. Required for photoreceptor cell viability after birth (By similarity). Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a conformational change that activates signaling via G-proteins (PubMed:15781694). Subsequent receptor phosphorylation mediates displacement of the bound G-protein alpha subunit by the arrestin SAG and terminates signaling (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Absorptioni

Abs(max)=496 nm1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections (‘Function’, ‘PTM / Processing’, ‘Pathology and Biotech’) according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei113Plays an important role in the conformation switch to the active conformationBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the ‘Description’ field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi201ZincBy similarity1
Metal bindingi279ZincBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionG-protein coupled receptor, Photoreceptor protein, Receptor, Retinal protein, Transducer
Biological processSensory transduction, Vision
LigandChromophore, Metal-binding, Zinc

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Rhodopsin
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:RHO
Synonyms:RH1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiLoxodonta africana (African elephant)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9785 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaAfrotheriaProboscideaElephantidaeLoxodonta
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000007646 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unassembled WGS sequence

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the subcellular compartment where each non-membrane region of a membrane-spanning protein is found.<p><a href='/help/topo_dom' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Topological domaini1 – 36ExtracellularCuratedAdd BLAST36
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.<p><a href='/help/transmem' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transmembranei37 – 61Helical; Name=1By similarityAdd BLAST25
Topological domaini62 – 73CytoplasmicCuratedAdd BLAST12
Transmembranei74 – 96Helical; Name=2By similarityAdd BLAST23
Topological domaini97 – 110ExtracellularCuratedAdd BLAST14
Transmembranei111 – 133Helical; Name=3By similarityAdd BLAST23
Topological domaini134 – 152CytoplasmicCuratedAdd BLAST19
Transmembranei153 – 173Helical; Name=4By similarityAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini174 – 202ExtracellularCuratedAdd BLAST29
Transmembranei203 – 224Helical; Name=5By similarityAdd BLAST22
Topological domaini225 – 252CytoplasmicCuratedAdd BLAST28
Transmembranei253 – 274Helical; Name=6By similarityAdd BLAST22
Topological domaini275 – 286ExtracellularCuratedAdd BLAST12
Transmembranei287 – 308Helical; Name=7By similarityAdd BLAST22
Topological domaini309 – 348CytoplasmicCuratedAdd BLAST40

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell projection, Membrane

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001976841 – 348RhodopsinAdd BLAST348

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei1N-acetylmethionineBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position and type of each covalently attached glycan group (mono-, di-, or polysaccharide).<p><a href='/help/carbohyd' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Glycosylationi2N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi15N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi110 ↔ 187PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Modified residuei296N6-(retinylidene)lysineBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position(s) and the type of covalently attached lipid group(s).<p><a href='/help/lipid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Lipidationi322S-palmitoyl cysteineBy similarity1
Lipidationi323S-palmitoyl cysteineBy similarity1
Modified residuei334PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei335PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei336PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei338PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei340PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei342PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei343PhosphoserineBy similarity1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated on some or all of the serine and threonine residues present in the C-terminal region.By similarity
Contains one covalently linked retinal chromophore. Upon light absorption, the covalently bound 11-cis-retinal is converted to all-trans-retinal (PubMed:15781694). After hydrolysis of the Schiff base and release of the covalently bound all-trans-retinal, active rhodopsin is regenerated by binding of a fresh molecule of 11-cis-retinal (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Lipoprotein, Palmitate, Phosphoprotein

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer (By similarity). May form a complex composed of RHO, GRK1 and RCVRN in a Ca2+-dependent manner; RCVRN prevents the interaction between GRK1 and RHO (By similarity).

Interacts with GRK1 (By similarity).

Interacts (phosphorylated form) with SAG.

Interacts with GNAT1.

Interacts with GNAT3. SAG and G-proteins compete for a common binding site (By similarity).

Interacts with PRCD; the interaction promotes PRCD stability.

By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9785.ENSLAFP00000001142

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni330 – 348Interaction with SAGBy similarityAdd BLAST19

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi134 – 136'Ionic lock' involved in activated form stabilizationBy similarity3

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Opsin subfamily.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG3656 Eukaryota
ENOG410XRW9 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000253932

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q68J47

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K04250

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
940057at2759

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR000276 GPCR_Rhodpsn
IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM
IPR001760 Opsin
IPR027430 Retinal_BS
IPR000732 Rhodopsin
IPR019477 Rhodopsin_N

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00001 7tm_1, 1 hit
PF10413 Rhodopsin_N, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00237 GPCRRHODOPSN
PR00238 OPSIN
PR00579 RHODOPSIN

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00237 G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_1, 1 hit
PS50262 G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_2, 1 hit
PS00238 OPSIN, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q68J47-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MNGTEGPNFY VPFSNKTGVV RSPFEYPQYY LAEPWQFSML AAYMFLLIVL
60 70 80 90 100
GFPINFLTLY VTVQHKNVRT PLNYILLNLA VANHFMVFGG FTTTLYTSLH
110 120 130 140 150
GYFVFGSTGC NLEGFFATLG GEIALWSLVV LAIERYVVVC KPMSNFRFGE
160 170 180 190 200
NHAIMGVAFT WVMALACAAP PLVGWSRYIP EGMQCSCGID YYTLKPEVNN
210 220 230 240 250
ESFVIYMFVV HFTIPMTIIF FCYGQLVFTV KEAAAQQQES ATTQKAEKEV
260 270 280 290 300
TRMVIIMVIA FLICWVPYAS VAFYIFTHQG SDFGPILMTL PAFFAKSSAI
310 320 330 340
YNPVIYIMMN KQFRNCMLTT ICCGKNPFGE EEGSTTASKT ETSQVAPA
Length:348
Mass (Da):39,050
Last modified:October 11, 2004 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i9B6B40F5219EE10D
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY686752 mRNA Translation: AAT95413.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001267787.1, NM_001280858.1

Genome annotation databases

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
100141369

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
lav:100141369

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY686752 mRNA Translation: AAT95413.1
RefSeqiNP_001267787.1, NM_001280858.1

3D structure databases

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

More...
SWISS-MODEL-Workspacei
Submit a new modelling project...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9785.ENSLAFP00000001142

Protein family/group databases

Information system for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)

More...
GPCRDBi
Search...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi100141369
KEGGilav:100141369

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
6010

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3656 Eukaryota
ENOG410XRW9 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000253932
InParanoidiQ68J47
KOiK04250
OrthoDBi940057at2759

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000276 GPCR_Rhodpsn
IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM
IPR001760 Opsin
IPR027430 Retinal_BS
IPR000732 Rhodopsin
IPR019477 Rhodopsin_N
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00001 7tm_1, 1 hit
PF10413 Rhodopsin_N, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00237 GPCRRHODOPSN
PR00238 OPSIN
PR00579 RHODOPSIN
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00237 G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_1, 1 hit
PS50262 G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_2, 1 hit
PS00238 OPSIN, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiOPSD_LOXAF
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q68J47
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 10, 2006
Last sequence update: October 11, 2004
Last modified: September 18, 2019
This is version 77 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. 7-transmembrane G-linked receptors
    List of 7-transmembrane G-linked receptor entries
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