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Entry version 142 (29 Sep 2021)
Sequence version 1 (21 Dec 2004)
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Protein

Tubulin beta chain

Gene

TUBB8

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Unreviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:3 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

UniRule annotation

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

LigandGTP-bindingUniRule annotationARBA annotation, Nucleotide-binding

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Tubulin beta chainUniRule annotation
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:TUBB8Imported
ORF Names:hCG_2017862Imported
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)Imported
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 10

Organism-specific databases

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

More...
HGNCi
HGNC:20773, TUBB8

Eukaryotic Pathogen, Vector and Host Database Resources

More...
VEuPathDBi
HostDB:ENSG00000261456

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, CytoskeletonARBA annotation, MicrotubuleUniRule annotationARBA annotation

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

Open Targets

More...
OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000261456

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Keywords - PTMi

Isopeptide bondARBA annotation, PhosphoproteinARBA annotation

Proteomic databases

PeptideAtlas

More...
PeptideAtlasi
Q5SQY0

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
Q5SQY0

ProteomicsDB: a multi-organism proteome resource

More...
ProteomicsDBi
63826

PTM databases

SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events

More...
SwissPalmi
Q5SQY0

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSG00000261456, Expressed in testis and 77 other tissues

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

More...
ExpressionAtlasi
Q5SQY0, baseline and differential

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

UniRule annotation

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q5SQY0

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family_and_domains_section">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini41 – 210TubulinInterPro annotationAdd BLAST170
Domaini212 – 349Tubulin_CInterPro annotationAdd BLAST138

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni1 – 20DisorderedSequence analysisAdd BLAST20
Regioni26 – 62DisorderedSequence analysisAdd BLAST37
Regioni389 – 410DisorderedSequence analysisAdd BLAST22

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular type of amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Compositional biasi393 – 410Acidic residuesSequence analysisAdd BLAST18

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the tubulin family.UniRule annotationARBA annotation

Phylogenomic databases

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000161436

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_015718_0_0_1

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.287.600, 1 hit
3.30.1330.20, 1 hit
3.40.50.1440, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR002453, Beta_tubulin
IPR008280, Tub_FtsZ_C
IPR000217, Tubulin
IPR037103, Tubulin/FtsZ-like_C
IPR018316, Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom
IPR036525, Tubulin/FtsZ_GTPase_sf
IPR023123, Tubulin_C
IPR017975, Tubulin_CS
IPR003008, Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR11588, PTHR11588, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00091, Tubulin, 1 hit
PF03953, Tubulin_C, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR01163, BETATUBULIN
PR01161, TUBULIN

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00864, Tubulin, 1 hit
SM00865, Tubulin_C, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF52490, SSF52490, 1 hit
SSF55307, SSF55307, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00227, TUBULIN, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence (1+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry has 1 described isoform and 5 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Q5SQY0-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MNMPSTPLAP TTGTATCSWS ASTCTTTRPA VRPPSFPHRP PGNAALPSLM
60 70 80 90 100
PSRPTQVAGQ CGAGNNWAKG HYTEGAELME SVMDVVRKEA ESCDCLQGFQ
110 120 130 140 150
LTHSLGGGTG SGMGTLLLSK IREEYPDRII NTFSILPSPK VSDTVVEPYN
160 170 180 190 200
ATLSVHQLIE NADETFCIDN EALYDICSKT LKLPTPTYGD LNHLVSATMS
210 220 230 240 250
GVTTCLRFPG QLNADLRKLA VNMVPFPRLH FFMPGFAPLT SRGSQQYRAL
260 270 280 290 300
TVAELTQQMF DAKNMMAACD PRHGRYLTAA AIFRGRMPMR EVDEQMFNIQ
310 320 330 340 350
DKNSSYFADW LPNNVKTAVC DIPPRGLKMS ATFIGNNTAI QELFKRVSEQ
360 370 380 390 400
FTAMFRRKAF LHWYTGEGMD EMEFTEAESN MNDLVSEYQQ YQDATAEEEE
410
DEEYAEEEVA
Length:410
Mass (Da):45,492
Last modified:December 21, 2004 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iEF7E0B9AFB111058
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 5 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
Q3ZCM7TBB8_HUMAN
Tubulin beta-8 chain
TUBB8
444Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A075B736A0A075B736_HUMAN
Tubulin beta chain
TUBB8
407Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A075B724A0A075B724_HUMAN
Tubulin beta-8 chain
TUBB8
119Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A075B735A0A075B735_HUMAN
Tubulin beta-8 chain
TUBB8
75Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A075B725A0A075B725_HUMAN
Tubulin beta-8 chain
TUBB8
89Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AL713922 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471072 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW86546.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENST00000564130; ENSP00000457610; ENSG00000261456

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
uc057rda.1, human

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AL713922 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471072 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW86546.1

3D structure databases

SMRiQ5SQY0
ModBaseiSearch...

PTM databases

SwissPalmiQ5SQY0

Proteomic databases

PeptideAtlasiQ5SQY0
PRIDEiQ5SQY0
ProteomicsDBi63826

Protocols and materials databases

Antibodypedia a portal for validated antibodies

More...
Antibodypediai
59334, 104 antibodies

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000564130; ENSP00000457610; ENSG00000261456
UCSCiuc057rda.1, human

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:20773, TUBB8
OpenTargetsiENSG00000261456
VEuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000261456

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00940000161436
HOGENOMiCLU_015718_0_0_1

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000261456, Expressed in testis and 77 other tissues
ExpressionAtlasiQ5SQY0, baseline and differential

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.287.600, 1 hit
3.30.1330.20, 1 hit
3.40.50.1440, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002453, Beta_tubulin
IPR008280, Tub_FtsZ_C
IPR000217, Tubulin
IPR037103, Tubulin/FtsZ-like_C
IPR018316, Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom
IPR036525, Tubulin/FtsZ_GTPase_sf
IPR023123, Tubulin_C
IPR017975, Tubulin_CS
IPR003008, Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase
PANTHERiPTHR11588, PTHR11588, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00091, Tubulin, 1 hit
PF03953, Tubulin_C, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01163, BETATUBULIN
PR01161, TUBULIN
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00864, Tubulin, 1 hit
SM00865, Tubulin_C, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF52490, SSF52490, 1 hit
SSF55307, SSF55307, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00227, TUBULIN, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiQ5SQY0_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q5SQY0
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL: December 21, 2004
Last sequence update: December 21, 2004
Last modified: September 29, 2021
This is version 142 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiUnreviewed (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Proteomics identificationCombined sources, Reference proteomeImported
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