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Entry version 172 (22 Apr 2020)
Sequence version 2 (20 Apr 2010)
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Protein

Leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine-protein kinase 2

Gene

LRRK2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Serine/threonine-protein kinase which phosphorylates a broad range of proteins involved in multiple processes such as neuronal plasticity, autophagy, and vesicle trafficking (PubMed:20949042, PubMed:22012985, PubMed:26824392, PubMed:29125462, PubMed:28720718, PubMed:29127255, PubMed:30398148, PubMed:29212815, PubMed:30635421, PubMed:21850687, PubMed:23395371, PubMed:17114044, PubMed:24687852, PubMed:26014385, PubMed:25201882). Is a key regulator of RAB GTPases by regulating the GTP/GDP exchange and interaction partners of RABs through phosphorylation (PubMed:26824392, PubMed:28720718, PubMed:29127255, PubMed:30398148, PubMed:29212815, PubMed:29125462, PubMed:30635421). Phosphorylates RAB3A, RAB3B, RAB3C, RAB3D, RAB5A, RAB5B, RAB5C, RAB8A, RAB8B, RAB10, RAB12, RAB35, and RAB43 (PubMed:26824392, PubMed:28720718, PubMed:29127255, PubMed:30398148, PubMed:29212815, PubMed:29125462, PubMed:30635421, PubMed:23395371). Regulates the RAB3IP-catalyzed GDP/GTP exchange for RAB8A through the phosphorylation of 'Thr-72' on RAB8A (PubMed:26824392). Inhibits the interaction between RAB8A and GDI1 and/or GDI2 by phosphorylating 'Thr-72' on RAB8A (PubMed:26824392). Regulates primary ciliogenesis through phosphorylation of RAB8A and RAB10, which promotes SHH signaling in the brain (PubMed:29125462, PubMed:30398148). Together with RAB29, plays a role in the retrograde trafficking pathway for recycling proteins, such as mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR), between lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus in a retromer-dependent manner (PubMed:23395371). Regulates neuronal process morphology in the intact central nervous system (CNS) (PubMed:17114044). Plays a role in synaptic vesicle trafficking (PubMed:24687852). Plays an important role in recruiting SEC16A to endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES) and in regulating ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport and ERES organization (PubMed:25201882). Positively regulates autophagy through a calcium-dependent activation of the CaMKK/AMPK signaling pathway (PubMed:22012985). The process involves activation of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) receptors, increase in lysosomal pH, and calcium release from lysosomes (PubMed:22012985). Phosphorylates PRDX3 (PubMed:21850687). By phosphorylating APP on 'Thr-743', which promotes the production and the nuclear translocation of the APP intracellular domain (AICD), regulates dopaminergic neuron apoptosis (PubMed:28720718). Independent of its kinase activity, inhibits the proteosomal degradation of MAPT, thus promoting MAPT oligomerization and secretion (PubMed:26014385). In addition, has GTPase activity via its Roc domain which regulates LRRK2 kinase activity (PubMed:18230735, PubMed:26824392, PubMed:29125462, PubMed:28720718, PubMed:29212815).16 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Mg2+3 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Kinase activity is regulated by the GTPase activity of the ROC domain (PubMed:29212815, PubMed:18230735). GTP-bound LLRK2 kinase activity is stimulated by RAB29 (PubMed:29212815). Inhibited by small molecule inhibitor MLi-2 (PubMed:26824392, PubMed:29127255).4 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei1906ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei1994Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi1341 – 1348GTPPROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication8
Nucleotide bindingi1885 – 1893ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation9
Nucleotide bindingi2098 – 2121GTPPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST24
Nucleotide bindingi2295 – 2298GTPPROSITE-ProRule annotation4

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionGTPase activation, Hydrolase, Kinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase
Biological processAutophagy, Differentiation
LigandATP-binding, GTP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

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Reactomei
R-HSA-8857538 PTK6 promotes HIF1A stabilization

SignaLink: a signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks

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SignaLinki
Q5S007

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

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SIGNORi
Q5S007

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (EC:2.7.11.17 Publications, EC:3.6.5.-5 Publications)
Alternative name(s):
Dardarin
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:LRRK2
Synonyms:PARK8
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 12

Organism-specific databases

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

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HGNCi
HGNC:18618 LRRK2

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

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MIMi
609007 gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

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neXtProti
NX_Q5S007

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell junction, Cell projection, Cytoplasmic vesicle, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosome, Golgi apparatus, Lysosome, Membrane, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrion outer membrane, Synapse

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

Parkinson disease 8 (PARK8)42 Publications
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, postural instability, neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, and the presence of neurofibrillary MAPT (tau)-positive and Lewy bodies in some patients.
Related information in OMIM
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_054741712M → V in PARK8. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs199566791EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_024935793R → M in PARK8; unknown pathological significance. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs35173587EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_024936930Q → R in PARK8; unknown pathological significance. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs281865045EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249381067R → Q in PARK8. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs111341148EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249391096S → C in PARK8; unknown pathological significance. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs76535406EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249401122I → V in PARK8. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs34805604EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249411228S → T in PARK8. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs60185966EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249431371I → V in PARK8; unknown pathological significance. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs17466213EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249451441R → C in PARK8; shows an increase in activity in both autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of a generic substrate; loss of interaction with SEC16A; shows an increase in activity in phosphorylation of RAB10; decreases phosphorylation-dependent binding to YWHAG. 10 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs33939927EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249461441R → G in PARK8; shows a progressive reduction in neurite length and branching; shows an increase in activity in phosphorylation of RAB8A and RAB10; decreases phosphorylation-depedent binding to YWHAG. 11 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs33939927EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249471441R → H in PARK8; shows an increase in activity in phosphorylation of RAB8A and RAB10; decreases phosphorylation-dependent binding to YWHAG. 4 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs34995376EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249481514R → Q in PARK8; unknown pathological significance. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs35507033EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249491542P → S in PARK8; unknown pathological significance. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs33958906EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249501598V → E in PARK8; unknown pathological significance. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs721710EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249541699Y → C in PARK8; shows no progressive reduction in neurite length and branching; no loss of interaction with SEC16A; shows an increase in activity in phosphorylation of RAB8A and RAB10. 9 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs35801418EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0547441728R → H in PARK8; shows an increase in activity in phosphorylation of RAB8A and RAB10. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs145364431EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0547451728R → L in PARK8. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs145364431EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249551869M → T in PARK8; unknown pathological significance. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs35602796EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249561941R → H in PARK8. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs77428810EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249572012I → T in PARK8; unknown pathological significance. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs34015634EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_0249582019G → S in PARK8; shows an increase in activity in both autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of a generic substrate; results in increased PRDX3 phosphorylation promoting dysregulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative damage; results in increased APP phosphorylation on 'T-743' promoting neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons; shows increased kinase activity in the phosphorylation of RAB10; does not inhibit interaction with RAB29; shows a progressive reduction in neurite length and branching; shows distinctive spheroid-like inclusions within both neuronal processes and at intracellular membranous structures; shows lysosomal swelling and reduced retrograde transport of selective cargo between lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus; shows apoptotic mechanism of cell death; no loss of interaction with SEC16A. 36 Publications