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Entry version 109 (10 Feb 2021)
Sequence version 1 (21 Dec 2004)
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Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2



Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan) (Pongo pygmaeus abelii)
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD2/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. May act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal carcinoma. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator (By similarity).By similarity


Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi74ZincBy similarity1
Metal bindingi149ZincBy similarity1
Metal bindingi161ZincBy similarity1
Metal bindingi166ZincBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding
Biological processTranscription, Transcription regulation
LigandMetal-binding, Zinc

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2
Short name:
MAD homolog 2
Short name:
Mothers against DPP homolog 2
Alternative name(s):
SMAD family member 2
Short name:
Short name:
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiPongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan) (Pongo pygmaeus abelii)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9601 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaePongo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000001595 <p>A UniProt <a href="">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unplaced

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">PTM / Processing</a> section indicates that the initiator methionine is cleaved from the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/init_met' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Initiator methionineiRemovedBy similarity
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00002903392 – 467Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2Add BLAST466

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="">lipids</a>, <a href="">glycans</a> and <a href="">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei2N-acetylserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei8PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei19N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei220PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei240Phosphoserine; by CAMK2PROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei245PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei250PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei255PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei458PhosphoserinePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei460PhosphoserinePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei464PhosphoserinePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei465Phosphoserine; by TGFBR1PROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei467Phosphoserine; by TGFBR1PROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

In response to TGF-beta, phosphorylated on the C-terminal SXS motif by TGF-beta and activin type 1 receptor kinases, phosphorylation declines progressively in a KMT5A-dependent manner. Phosphorylation in this motif is required for interaction with a number of proteins including SMURF2, SNON and SMAD4 in response to TGF-beta. Dephosphorylated in this motif by PPM1A leading to disruption of the SMAD2/3-SMAD4 complex, nuclear export and termination of the TGF-beta signaling. In response to decorin, the naturally occurring inhibitor of TGF-beta signaling, phosphorylated on Ser-240 by CaMK2. Phosphorylated by MAPK3 upon EGF stimulation; which increases transcriptional activity and stability, and is blocked by calmodulin. Phosphorylated by PDPK1 (By similarity).By similarity
Acetylated on Lys-19 by coactivators in response to TGF-beta signaling, which increases transcriptional activity.By similarity
In response to TGF-beta, ubiquitinated by NEDD4L; which promotes its degradation. Monoubiquitinated, leading to prevent DNA-binding (By similarity). Deubiquitination by USP15 alleviates inhibition and promotes activation of TGF-beta target genes (By similarity). Ubiquitinated by RNF111, leading to its degradation: only SMAD2 proteins that are 'in use' are targeted by RNF111, RNF111 playing a key role in activating SMAD2 and regulating its turnover (By similarity).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Monomer; in the absence of TGF-beta (By similarity). Heterodimer; in the presence of TGF-beta (By similarity).

Forms a heterodimer with co-SMAD, SMAD4, in the nucleus to form the transactivation complex SMAD2/SMAD4 (By similarity).

Found in a complex with SMAD3 and TRIM33 upon addition of TGF-beta (By similarity).

Identified in a complex that contains at least ZNF451, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4 (By similarity).

Interacts (via the MH2 domain) with ZFYVE9; may form trimers with the SMAD4 co-SMAD (By similarity).

Interacts with TAZ/WWRT1 (By similarity).

Interacts with FOXH1 (By similarity).

Interacts with SNW1 (By similarity).

Interacts with CREB-binding protein (CBP) and EP300 (By similarity).

Interacts with SNON (By similarity).

Interacts with ALK4/ACVR1B (By similarity).

Interacts with SKOR1 (By similarity).

Interacts with SKOR2 (By similarity).

Interacts with PRDM16 (By similarity).

Interacts (via MH2 domain) with LEMD3 (By similarity).

Interacts with RBPMS (By similarity).

Interacts with WWP1.

Interacts (dephosphorylated form, via the MH1 and MH2 domains) with RANBP3 (via its C-terminal R domain); the interaction results in the export of dephosphorylated SMAD3 out of the nucleus and termination of the TGF-beta signaling (By similarity).

Interacts with PDPK1 (via PH domain) (By similarity).

Interacts with DAB2; the interactions are enhanced upon TGF-beta stimulation (By similarity).

Interacts with USP15 (By similarity).

Interacts with PPP5C (By similarity).

Interacts with LDLRAD4 (via the SMAD interaction motif) (By similarity).

Interacts (via MH2 domain) with PMEPA1 (via the SMAD interaction motif) (By similarity).

Interacts with ZFHX3 (By similarity).

Interacts with ZNF451 (By similarity).

Interacts with SMURF2 when phosphorylated on Ser-465/467 (By similarity).

Interacts with PPM1A (By similarity).

Interacts with TGF-beta (By similarity).

Interacts with TGFBR1 (By similarity).

Interacts with TGIF (By similarity).

Interacts with SMAD3 and TRIM33 (By similarity).

Interacts with ZNF580 (By similarity).

Interacts with NEDD4L in response to TGF-beta (By similarity).

Interacts with HGS (By similarity).

Interacts with AIP1 (By similarity).

Interacts with WWP1 (By similarity).

Interacts with PML (By similarity).

Interacts weakly with ZNF8 (By similarity).

Interacts (when phosphorylated) with RNF111; RNF111 acts as an enhancer of the transcriptional responses by mediating ubiquitination and degradation of SMAD2 inhibitors (By similarity).

Interacts with YAP1 (when phosphorylated at 'Ser-55') (By similarity).

By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks


<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models


Database of comparative protein structure models


<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini10 – 176MH1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST167
Domaini274 – 467MH2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST194


Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi221 – 225PY-motifBy similarity5

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the dwarfin/SMAD family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

KOG3701, Eukaryota

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups


Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

Gene3Di, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

View protein in InterPro
IPR013790, Dwarfin
IPR003619, MAD_homology1_Dwarfin-type
IPR013019, MAD_homology_MH1
IPR017855, SMAD-like_dom_sf
IPR001132, SMAD_dom_Dwarfin-type
IPR008984, SMAD_FHA_dom_sf
IPR036578, SMAD_MH1_sf

The PANTHER Classification System

PTHR13703, PTHR13703, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

View protein in Pfam
PF03165, MH1, 1 hit
PF03166, MH2, 1 hit

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

View protein in SMART
SM00523, DWA, 1 hit
SM00524, DWB, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

SSF49879, SSF49879, 1 hit
SSF56366, SSF56366, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

View protein in PROSITE
PS51075, MH1, 1 hit
PS51076, MH2, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="">length</a> and <a href="">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q5R7C0-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
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Mass (Da):52,307
Last modified:December 21, 2004 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iA343DE25DC0C8061

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database


GenBank nucleotide sequence database


DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

Links Updated
CR860198 mRNA Translation: CAH92340.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

NP_001126376.1, NM_001132904.2

Genome annotation databases

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes


KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes


<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
CR860198 mRNA Translation: CAH92340.1
RefSeqiNP_001126376.1, NM_001132904.2

3D structure databases


Protein-protein interaction databases


Protocols and materials databases

ABCD curated depository of sequenced antibodies

Q5R7C0, 1 sequenced antibody

Genome annotation databases


Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database


Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3701, Eukaryota

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.200.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR013790, Dwarfin
IPR003619, MAD_homology1_Dwarfin-type
IPR013019, MAD_homology_MH1
IPR017855, SMAD-like_dom_sf
IPR001132, SMAD_dom_Dwarfin-type
IPR008984, SMAD_FHA_dom_sf
IPR036578, SMAD_MH1_sf
PANTHERiPTHR13703, PTHR13703, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF03165, MH1, 1 hit
PF03166, MH2, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00523, DWA, 1 hit
SM00524, DWB, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF49879, SSF49879, 1 hit
SSF56366, SSF56366, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51075, MH1, 1 hit
PS51076, MH2, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins


MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations


<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiSMAD2_PONAB
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q5R7C0
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 12, 2007
Last sequence update: December 21, 2004
Last modified: February 10, 2021
This is version 109 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome


  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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