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Entry version 105 (12 Aug 2020)
Sequence version 1 (24 May 2005)
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Protein

Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase

Gene

pah

Organism
Dictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Hydroxylates L-tryptophan to 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan but does not hydroxylate L-tyrosine to L-DOPA. It uses D-threo-tetrahydrodictyopterin (DH4), also known as dictyoperin, as a cofactor.1 Publication

Miscellaneous

This enzyme uses tetrahydrodictyopterin (DH4), a D-threo isomer of biopterin, and not tetrahydrobiopterin (TH4) for it's catalytic activity.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Fe2+By similarityNote: Binds 1 Fe2+ ion.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=620 µM for L-Phe with BH4 as cofactor1 Publication
  2. KM=90 µM for L-Phe with DH4 as cofactor1 Publication
  3. KM=49 µM for BH41 Publication
  4. KM=39 µM for DH41 Publication
  1. Vmax=660 nmol/min/mg enzyme with BH4 as cofactor (preincubated with L-Phe)1 Publication
  2. Vmax=840 nmol/min/mg enzyme with DH4 as cofactor (preincubated with L-Phe)1 Publication
  3. Vmax=1620 nmol/min/mg enzyme with BH4 as cofactor (preincubated with BH4)1 Publication
  4. Vmax=1890 nmol/min/mg enzyme with DH4 as cofactor (preincubated with DH4)1 Publication

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature is 40 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: L-phenylalanine degradation

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes acetoacetate and fumarate from L-phenylalanine.
Proteins known to be involved in the 6 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase (pah)
  2. Tyrosine aminotransferase (tat)
  3. 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hpd)
  4. Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (hgd)
  5. Maleylacetoacetate isomerase (mai)
  6. Fumarylacetoacetase (fah)
This subpathway is part of the pathway L-phenylalanine degradation, which is itself part of Amino-acid degradation.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes acetoacetate and fumarate from L-phenylalanine, the pathway L-phenylalanine degradation and in Amino-acid degradation.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi273IronBy similarity1
Metal bindingi278IronBy similarity1
Metal bindingi318IronBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionMonooxygenase, Oxidoreductase
Biological processPhenylalanine catabolism
LigandIron, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-DDI-209905, Catecholamine biosynthesis
R-DDI-209931, Serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis
R-DDI-8964208, Phenylalanine metabolism

SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

More...
SABIO-RKi
Q54XS1

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00139;UER00337

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase (EC:1.14.16.1, EC:1.14.16.4)
Short name:
PAH
Alternative name(s):
Phe-4-monooxygenase
Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase
Short name:
TRH
Tryptophan 5-monooxygenase
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:pah
ORF Names:DDB_G0278781
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiDictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri44689 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaAmoebozoaEvoseaEumycetozoaDictyosteliaDictyostelialesDictyosteliaceaeDictyostelium
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000002195 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componentsi: Chromosome 3, Unassembled WGS sequence

Organism-specific databases

Dictyostelium discoideum online informatics resource

More...
dictyBasei
DDB_G0278781, pah

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00003283361 – 441Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylaseAdd BLAST441

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q54XS1

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homotetramer.

1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">Interaction</a>' section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="https://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated at every <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/synchronization">UniProt release</a>.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

Q54XS1
With#Exp.IntAct
itself4EBI-8067766,EBI-8067766

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

Molecular INTeraction database

More...
MINTi
Q54XS1

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
44689.DDB0231664

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1441
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q54XS1

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

More...
PDBe-KBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family%5Fand%5Fdomains%5Fsection">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini23 – 102ACTPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST80

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG3820, Eukaryota

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_023198_0_1_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q54XS1

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K00500

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
YEFFVEC

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q54XS1

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd03347, eu_PheOH, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.800.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR002912, ACT_dom
IPR001273, ArAA_hydroxylase
IPR018301, ArAA_hydroxylase_Fe/CU_BS
IPR036951, ArAA_hydroxylase_sf
IPR036329, Aro-AA_hydroxylase_C_sf
IPR019774, Aromatic-AA_hydroxylase_C
IPR041912, Euk_PheOH_cat
IPR018528, Preph_deHydtase_CS
IPR019773, Tyrosine_3-monooxygenase-like

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR11473, PTHR11473, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00351, Biopterin_H, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF000336, TH, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00372, FYWHYDRXLASE

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF56534, SSF56534, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS51671, ACT, 1 hit
PS00367, BH4_AAA_HYDROXYL_1, 1 hit
PS51410, BH4_AAA_HYDROXYL_2, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q54XS1-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MESNTNSQGQ GIIPQSYHSS IFFSISKGSD KIGGLLEYLE IIKKHNINIT
60 70 80 90 100
RIESRPSKTE KKDYDFFLDL EYPTENNKEV EKVIKDLEEK GVKATTLQES
110 120 130 140 150
SNQTYAPWFP RKISDLDLFA NKVLEMGSDL TSDHPGASDP VYRERRREIA
160 170 180 190 200
KIASTYKHGD EIPRIDYTEE EIKTWGVVYN RLKELFPTNA CHQHAYIFPL
210 220 230 240 250
LEQNCGYSPD NIPQLQDISN FLQECTGWRI RPVQGLLSAR DFLNGLAFRV
260 270 280 290 300
FHATQYIRHP SVPLYTPEPD CCHELLGHVP LLADPDFADF SQEIGLASIG
310 320 330 340 350
ASDEDIQLLS TCYWFTVEFG LCKEGDTIRA YGAGILSSTG EMEHFLTDKA
360 370 380 390 400
KKLPFNPFDA CNTEYPITTF QPLYYVAESF QKAKEQMRQF ADSFKKPFSI
410 420 430 440
RYNPYTQSIE ILDNKDKLLN ICNDIRNQSE ILADAISKLK A
Length:441
Mass (Da):50,415
Last modified:May 24, 2005 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iD02E03F28A873D1C
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AAFI02000024 Genomic DNA Translation: EAL67992.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
XP_641959.1, XM_636867.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl protists genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblProtistsi
EAL67992; EAL67992; DDB_G0278781

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
8621691

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ddi:DDB_G0278781

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AAFI02000024 Genomic DNA Translation: EAL67992.1
RefSeqiXP_641959.1, XM_636867.1

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
5JK5X-ray2.07A/B1-415[»]
5JK6X-ray2.07A/B1-415[»]
5JK8X-ray2.39A/B1-415[»]
SMRiQ54XS1
ModBaseiSearch...
PDBe-KBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

MINTiQ54XS1
STRINGi44689.DDB0231664

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ54XS1

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblProtistsiEAL67992; EAL67992; DDB_G0278781
GeneIDi8621691
KEGGiddi:DDB_G0278781

Organism-specific databases

dictyBaseiDDB_G0278781, pah

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3820, Eukaryota
HOGENOMiCLU_023198_0_1_1
InParanoidiQ54XS1
KOiK00500
OMAiYEFFVEC
PhylomeDBiQ54XS1

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00139;UER00337
ReactomeiR-DDI-209905, Catecholamine biosynthesis
R-DDI-209931, Serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis
R-DDI-8964208, Phenylalanine metabolism
SABIO-RKiQ54XS1

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q54XS1

Family and domain databases

CDDicd03347, eu_PheOH, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.10.800.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002912, ACT_dom
IPR001273, ArAA_hydroxylase
IPR018301, ArAA_hydroxylase_Fe/CU_BS
IPR036951, ArAA_hydroxylase_sf
IPR036329, Aro-AA_hydroxylase_C_sf
IPR019774, Aromatic-AA_hydroxylase_C
IPR041912, Euk_PheOH_cat
IPR018528, Preph_deHydtase_CS
IPR019773, Tyrosine_3-monooxygenase-like
PANTHERiPTHR11473, PTHR11473, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00351, Biopterin_H, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF000336, TH, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00372, FYWHYDRXLASE
SUPFAMiSSF56534, SSF56534, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51671, ACT, 1 hit
PS00367, BH4_AAA_HYDROXYL_1, 1 hit
PS51410, BH4_AAA_HYDROXYL_2, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiPH4H_DICDI
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q54XS1
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 8, 2008
Last sequence update: May 24, 2005
Last modified: August 12, 2020
This is version 105 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum
    Dictyostelium discoideum: entries, gene names and cross-references to dictyBase
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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