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Entry version 108 (07 Apr 2021)
Sequence version 1 (24 May 2005)
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Protein

Histone H2AX

Gene

H2AX

Organism
Dictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:3 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Core component of nucleosome which plays a central role in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling (By similarity). Phosphorylation of H2AX seems to be performed by atr1 and/or possibly dnapkcs, as ATM ortholog is absent in the genome of this organism.By similarity1 Publication

Caution

To ensure consistency between histone entries, we follow the 'Brno' nomenclature for histone modifications, with positions referring to those used in the literature for the 'closest' model organism. Due to slight variations in histone sequences between organisms and to the presence of initiator methionine in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot sequences, the actual positions of modified amino acids in the sequence generally differ. In this entry the following convention is used: H2AS128ph = phosphorylated Ser-151.Curated

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding
Biological processDNA damage, DNA repair

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-DDI-2299718, Condensation of Prophase Chromosomes
R-DDI-2559580, Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
R-DDI-3214815, HDACs deacetylate histones
R-DDI-3214858, RMTs methylate histone arginines
R-DDI-427359, SIRT1 negatively regulates rRNA expression
R-DDI-5625886, Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3
R-DDI-5689880, Ub-specific processing proteases
R-DDI-5693565, Recruitment and ATM-mediated phosphorylation of repair and signaling proteins at DNA double strand breaks
R-DDI-73772, RNA Polymerase I Promoter Escape
R-DDI-8936459, RUNX1 regulates genes involved in megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet function

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Histone H2AX
Short name:
H2a/x
Alternative name(s):
Histone H2A.X
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:H2AX
ORF Names:DDB_G0279667
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiDictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri44689 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaAmoebozoaEvoseaEumycetozoaDictyosteliaDictyostelialesDictyosteliaceaeDictyostelium
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000002195 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componentsi: Chromosome 3, Unassembled WGS sequence

Organism-specific databases

Dictyostelium discoideum online informatics resource

More...
dictyBasei
DDB_G0279667, H2AX

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chromosome, Nucleosome core, Nucleus

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00003891531 – 154Histone H2AXAdd BLAST154

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei151PhosphoserineBy similarity1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated at Ser-151 to form H2AS128ph (gamma-H2AX) in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by exogenous genotoxic agents and by stalled replication forks. Phosphorylation is dependent on the DNA damage checkpoint kinase atr1 and/or possibly dnapkcs, spreads on either side of a detected DSB site and may mark the surrounding chromatin for recruitment of proteins required for DNA damage signaling and repair. Gamma-H2AX is removed from the DNA prior to the strand invasion-primer extension step of the repair process and subsequently dephosphorylated. Dephosphorylation is necessary for efficient recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint (By similarity).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q54WG6

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA (By similarity).

By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
44689.DDB0216271

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q54WG6

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi151 – 152[ST]-Q motif2

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Compositional biasi12 – 15Poly-Ala4
Compositional biasi138 – 141Poly-Lys4

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term 'domain' is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

The [ST]-Q motif constitutes a recognition sequence for kinases from the PI3/PI4-kinase family.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the histone H2A family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG1756, Eukaryota

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_062828_3_1_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q54WG6

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
ELAHNTC

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q54WG6

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd00074, H2A, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.20.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR009072, Histone-fold
IPR002119, Histone_H2A
IPR007125, Histone_H2A/H2B/H3
IPR032454, Histone_H2A_C

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00125, Histone, 1 hit
PF16211, Histone_H2A_C, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00620, HISTONEH2A

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00414, H2A, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF47113, SSF47113, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q54WG6-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MSETKPASSK PAAAAKPKKV IPRVSRTGEP KSKPESRSAR AGITFPVSRV
60 70 80 90 100
DRLLREGRFA PRVESTAPVY LAAVLEYLVF EILELAHNTC SISKKTRITP
110 120 130 140 150
QHINWAVGND LELNSLFQHV TIAYGGVLPT PQQSTGEKKK KPSKKAAEGS

SQIY
Length:154
Mass (Da):16,824
Last modified:May 24, 2005 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i40E4CF5BDADC0397
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AAFI02000032 Genomic DNA Translation: EAL67608.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
XP_641587.1, XM_636495.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl protists genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblProtistsi
EAL67608; EAL67608; DDB_G0279667

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
8622161

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ddi:DDB_G0279667

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AAFI02000032 Genomic DNA Translation: EAL67608.1
RefSeqiXP_641587.1, XM_636495.1

3D structure databases

SMRiQ54WG6
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi44689.DDB0216271

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ54WG6

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblProtistsiEAL67608; EAL67608; DDB_G0279667
GeneIDi8622161
KEGGiddi:DDB_G0279667

Organism-specific databases

dictyBaseiDDB_G0279667, H2AX

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1756, Eukaryota
HOGENOMiCLU_062828_3_1_1
InParanoidiQ54WG6
OMAiELAHNTC
PhylomeDBiQ54WG6

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-DDI-2299718, Condensation of Prophase Chromosomes
R-DDI-2559580, Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
R-DDI-3214815, HDACs deacetylate histones
R-DDI-3214858, RMTs methylate histone arginines
R-DDI-427359, SIRT1 negatively regulates rRNA expression
R-DDI-5625886, Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3
R-DDI-5689880, Ub-specific processing proteases
R-DDI-5693565, Recruitment and ATM-mediated phosphorylation of repair and signaling proteins at DNA double strand breaks
R-DDI-73772, RNA Polymerase I Promoter Escape
R-DDI-8936459, RUNX1 regulates genes involved in megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet function

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q54WG6

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00074, H2A, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.10.20.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009072, Histone-fold
IPR002119, Histone_H2A
IPR007125, Histone_H2A/H2B/H3
IPR032454, Histone_H2A_C
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00125, Histone, 1 hit
PF16211, Histone_H2A_C, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00620, HISTONEH2A
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00414, H2A, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF47113, SSF47113, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiH2AX_DICDI
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q54WG6
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 24, 2009
Last sequence update: May 24, 2005
Last modified: April 7, 2021
This is version 108 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum
    Dictyostelium discoideum: entries, gene names and cross-references to dictyBase
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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