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Entry version 31 (11 Dec 2019)
Sequence version 1 (19 Jul 2005)
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Protein

Beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase

Gene

blh

Organism
Uncultured marine bacterium 66A03
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the cleavage of beta-carotene at its central double bond (15,15') to yield two molecules of all-trans-retinal. Exhibits the highest activity for beta-carotene, followed by beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-apo-4'-carotenal, alpha-carotene, and gamma-carotene in decreasing order, but has no activity on beta-apo-8'-carotenal, beta-apo-12'-carotenal, lutein, zeaxanthin, or lycopene, suggesting that the presence of one unsubstituted beta-ionone ring in a substrate with a molecular weight greater than C35 seems to be essential for enzyme activity.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Fe2+UniRule annotation1 PublicationNote: Binds 1 Fe2+ ion per subunit.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

The kcat is 4.5-fold higher with beta-carotene than with beta-cryptoxanthin as substrate.
  1. KM=37 µM for beta-carotene1 Publication
  2. KM=29 µM for beta-cryptoxanthin1 Publication
  3. KM=147 µM for beta-apo-4'-carotenal1 Publication
  4. KM=169 µM for alpha-carotene1 Publication
  5. KM=382 µM for gamma-carotene1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 8.0.1 Publication

    Temperature dependencei

    Optimum temperature is 40 degrees Celsius. Above this temperature, the enzyme activity decreases significantly, exhibiting 66% of the maximum activity at 50 degrees Celsius. Below 40 degrees Celsius, the enzyme activity decreases with decreasing temperature, exhibiting 15% of the maximum activity at 25 degrees Celsius. The half-lives of the enzyme at 35, 40, 45, 50, and 55 degrees Celsius are 17.6, 15.0, 12.5, 6.1, and 1.5 hours, respectively.1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi21IronUniRule annotation1 Publication1
    Metal bindingi78IronUniRule annotation1 Publication1
    Metal bindingi188IronUniRule annotation1 Publication1
    Metal bindingi192IronUniRule annotation1 Publication1

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    • carotenoid dioxygenase activity Source: UniProtKB
    • iron ion binding Source: UniProtKB-UniRule

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionDioxygenase, Oxidoreductase
    LigandIron, Metal-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    More...
    BioCyci
    MetaCyc:MONOMER-17377

    BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

    More...
    BRENDAi
    1.13.11.63 3186

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenaseCurated (EC:1.13.11.63UniRule annotation1 Publication)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:blh
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiUncultured marine bacterium 66A03
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri331677 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaenvironmental samples

    <p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

    Topology

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular%5Flocation%5Fsection">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.<p><a href='/help/transmem' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transmembranei1 – 21HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST21
    Transmembranei36 – 56HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST21
    Transmembranei57 – 77HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST21
    Transmembranei91 – 111HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST21
    Transmembranei127 – 147HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST21
    Transmembranei160 – 180HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST21
    Transmembranei210 – 230HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST21
    Transmembranei244 – 264HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST21

    GO - Cellular componenti

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cell membrane, Membrane

    <p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the use of a specific protein in the biotechnological industry.<p><a href='/help/biotechnological_use' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Biotechnological usei

    Could be used for high retinal production.1 Publication

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology%5Fand%5Fbiotech%5Fsection">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi21H → A: 3% of wild-type activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi78H → A: Loss of activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi188H → A: Loss of activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi192H → A: 5% of wild-type activity. 1 Publication1

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004084991 – 275Beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenaseAdd BLAST275

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.

    1 Publication

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the Brp/Blh beta-carotene diooxygenase family.UniRule annotationCurated

    Keywords - Domaini

    Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

    Phylogenomic databases

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K21817

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAP database of protein families

    More...
    HAMAPi
    MF_02093 Beta_carotene_diox, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR022270 Blh_monoox

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF15461 BCD, 1 hit

    TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

    More...
    TIGRFAMsi
    TIGR03753 blh_monoox, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q4PNI0-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MGLMLIDWCA LALVVFIGLP HGALDAAISF SMISSAKRIA RLAGILLIYL
    60 70 80 90 100
    LLATAFFLIW YQLPAFSLLI FLLISIIHFG MADFNASPSK LKWPHIIAHG
    110 120 130 140 150
    GVVTVWLPLI QKNEVTKLFS ILTNGPTPIL WDILLIFFLC WSIGVCLHTY
    160 170 180 190 200
    ETLRSKHYNI AFELIGLIFL AWYAPPLVTF ATYFCFIHSR RHFSFVWKQL
    210 220 230 240 250
    QHMSSKKMMI GSAIILSCTS WLIGGGIYFF LNSKMIASEA ALQTVFIGLA
    260 270
    ALTVPHMILI DFIFRPHSSR IKIKN
    Length:275
    Mass (Da):31,037
    Last modified:July 19, 2005 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iD571B00FCA434036
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    DQ065755 Genomic DNA Translation: AAY68319.1

    Genome annotation databases

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    ag:AAY68319

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    DQ065755 Genomic DNA Translation: AAY68319.1

    3D structure databases

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

    More...
    SWISS-MODEL-Workspacei
    Submit a new modelling project...

    Genome annotation databases

    KEGGiag:AAY68319

    Phylogenomic databases

    KOiK21817

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciMetaCyc:MONOMER-17377
    BRENDAi1.13.11.63 3186

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPiMF_02093 Beta_carotene_diox, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR022270 Blh_monoox
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF15461 BCD, 1 hit
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR03753 blh_monoox, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiBLH_UNCMB
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q4PNI0
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 31, 2011
    Last sequence update: July 19, 2005
    Last modified: December 11, 2019
    This is version 31 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Documents

    1. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
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