Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Entry version 111 (16 Oct 2019)
Sequence version 2 (15 Jan 2008)
Previous versions | rss
Help videoAdd a publicationFeedback
Protein

UDP-glucose 4-epimerase

Gene

GALE

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes two distinct but analogous reactions: the reversible epimerization of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose and the reversible epimerization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine. The reaction with UDP-Gal plays a critical role in the Leloir pathway of galactose catabolism in which galactose is converted to the glycolytic intermediate glucose 6-phosphate. It contributes to the catabolism of dietary galactose and enables the endogenous biosynthesis of both UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc when exogenous sources are limited. Both UDP-sugar interconversions are important in the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

NAD+By similarity

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: galactose metabolism

This protein is involved in the pathway galactose metabolism, which is part of Carbohydrate metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway galactose metabolism and in Carbohydrate metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei88NAD; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Binding sitei92NADBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei157Proton acceptorBy similarity1
Binding sitei161NADBy similarity1
Binding sitei185NADBy similarity1
Binding sitei239SubstrateBy similarity1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi12 – 14NADBy similarity3
Nucleotide bindingi33 – 37NADBy similarity5
Nucleotide bindingi66 – 67NADBy similarity2

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionIsomerase
Biological processCarbohydrate metabolism, Galactose metabolism
LigandNAD

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-BTA-70370 Galactose catabolism

SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

More...
SABIO-RKi
Q3T105

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00214

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
UDP-glucose 4-epimeraseBy similarity (EC:5.1.3.2By similarity)
Alternative name(s):
GalactowaldenaseBy similarity
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimeraseBy similarity (EC:5.1.3.7By similarity)
Short name:
UDP-GlcNAc 4-epimeraseBy similarity
UDP-galactosamine 4-epimeraseBy similarity
Short name:
UDP-GalNAc 4-epimeraseBy similarity
UDP-galactose 4-epimeraseBy similarity
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:GALEBy similarity
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unplaced

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004306061 – 348UDP-glucose 4-epimeraseAdd BLAST348

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q3T105

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSBTAG00000005002 Expressed in 9 organ(s), highest expression level in colon

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer.

By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9913.ENSBTAP00000006586

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q3T105

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni132 – 134Substrate bindingBy similarity3
Regioni185 – 187Substrate bindingBy similarity3
Regioni206 – 208Substrate bindingBy similarity3
Regioni224 – 226Substrate bindingBy similarity3
Regioni300 – 303Substrate bindingBy similarity4

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the NAD(P)-dependent epimerase/dehydratase family.UniRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG1371 Eukaryota
COG1087 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000168001

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q3T105

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K01784

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
GEHLICN

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
662484at2759

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF105800

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd05247 UDP_G4E_1_SDR_e, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR016040 NAD(P)-bd_dom
IPR036291 NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf
IPR005886 UDP_G4E

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF16363 GDP_Man_Dehyd, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51735 SSF51735, 1 hit

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR01179 galE, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q3T105-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MAEKVLVTGG AGYIGSHTVL ELLEAGYSPM VIDNFHNAIR GGGSMPESLR
60 70 80 90 100
RVQDLTGRSV EFEEMDILDQ AALQRLFKKH SFMAVIHFAG LKAVGESVQK
110 120 130 140 150
PLDYYRVNLT GTIQLLEIMR AHGVKNLVFS SSATVYGNPQ YLPLDEAHPT
160 170 180 190 200
GGCTNPYGKS KFFIEEMIRD LCQADKAWNA VLLRYFNPIG AHASGCIGED
210 220 230 240 250
PQGIPNNLMP YVSQVAIGRR EVLNVFGNDY DTEDGTGVRD YIHVVDLAKG
260 270 280 290 300
HIAALRKLKE QCGCRIYNLG TGTGYSVLQM VQAMEKASGK KIPYKVVARR
310 320 330 340
EGDVAACYAN PSLALKELGW SAALGLDRMC EDLWRWQKQN PSGFGTQA
Length:348
Mass (Da):38,254
Last modified:January 15, 2008 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iF619F2C4491D94B5
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
DAAA02006426 Genomic DNA No translation available.
BC102185 mRNA Translation: AAI02186.2

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001193137.1, NM_001206208.1
XP_005203235.2, XM_005203178.3
XP_005203236.2, XM_005203179.3

Genome annotation databases

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
523154

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
bta:523154

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
DAAA02006426 Genomic DNA No translation available.
BC102185 mRNA Translation: AAI02186.2
RefSeqiNP_001193137.1, NM_001206208.1
XP_005203235.2, XM_005203178.3
XP_005203236.2, XM_005203179.3

3D structure databases

SMRiQ3T105
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000006586

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ3T105

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi523154
KEGGibta:523154

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
2582

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1371 Eukaryota
COG1087 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000168001
InParanoidiQ3T105
KOiK01784
OMAiGEHLICN
OrthoDBi662484at2759
TreeFamiTF105800

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00214
ReactomeiR-BTA-70370 Galactose catabolism
SABIO-RKiQ3T105

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSBTAG00000005002 Expressed in 9 organ(s), highest expression level in colon

Family and domain databases

CDDicd05247 UDP_G4E_1_SDR_e, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR016040 NAD(P)-bd_dom
IPR036291 NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf
IPR005886 UDP_G4E
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF16363 GDP_Man_Dehyd, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF51735 SSF51735, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01179 galE, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGALE_BOVIN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q3T105
Secondary accession number(s): F2Z4C3
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 29, 2014
Last sequence update: January 15, 2008
Last modified: October 16, 2019
This is version 111 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

We'd like to inform you that we have updated our Privacy Notice to comply with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018.

Do not show this banner again