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Entry version 97 (11 Dec 2019)
Sequence version 1 (07 Feb 2006)
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Protein

Serine racemase

Gene

SR

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the synthesis of D-serine from L-serine. Has dehydratase activity towards both L-serine and D-serine. Displays high substrate specificity for L-serine, whereas L-alanine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine were poor substrates.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

pyridoxal 5'-phosphate

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Inhibited by hydroxylamine. Racemase activity is enhanced by Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and is decreased by Ni2+, Zn2+. Hydratase activity is enhanced by Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Ni2+.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=2.5 mM for L-serine (racemase activity)1 Publication
  2. KM=0.77 mM for D-serine (racemase activity)1 Publication
  3. KM=20 mM for L-serine (dehydratase activity)1 Publication
  4. KM=5 mM for D-serine (dehydratase activity)1 Publication
  1. Vmax=5 nmol/min/mg enzyme toward L-serine (racemase activity)1 Publication
  2. Vmax=1.1 nmol/min/mg enzyme toward D-serine (racemase activity)1 Publication
  3. Vmax=250 nmol/min/mg enzyme toward L-serine (dehydratase activity)1 Publication
  4. Vmax=26 nmol/min/mg enzyme toward L-serine (dehydratase activity)1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 8.5 for racemization and 9.5 for dehydration.1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei54ATPBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei59Proton acceptorBy similarity1
Active sitei84Proton acceptorBy similarity1
Binding sitei121ATPBy similarity1
Binding sitei135SubstrateBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the ‘Description’ field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi210MagnesiumBy similarity1
Metal bindingi214Magnesium; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi216MagnesiumBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionAllosteric enzyme, Isomerase, Lyase
LigandATP-binding, Magnesium, Metal-binding, Nucleotide-binding, Pyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
ARA:AT4G11640-MONOMER
MetaCyc:MONOMER-14684

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

More...
BRENDAi
5.1.1.18 399

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Serine racemase (EC:4.3.1.17, EC:4.3.1.18, EC:5.1.1.18)
Short name:
AtSR
Alternative name(s):
D-serine ammonia-lyase
D-serine dehydratase
L-serine ammonia-lyase
L-serine dehydratase
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:SR
Synonyms:SR1
Ordered Locus Names:At4g11640
ORF Names:T5C23.70
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliopsidaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

Arabidopsis Information Portal

More...
Araporti
AT4G11640

The Arabidopsis Information Resource

More...
TAIRi
locus:2139767 AT4G11640

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Deformations and branching of pollen tubes grown in pistils.1 Publication

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004203461 – 331Serine racemaseAdd BLAST331

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei59N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysineBy similarity1

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q2PGG3

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
Q2PGG3

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed in the whole plant.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

More...
ExpressionAtlasi
Q2PGG3 baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
Q2PGG3 AT

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer.

By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
3702.AT4G11640.1

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q2PGG3

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni237 – 238Substrate bindingBy similarity2

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG1251 Eukaryota
COG1171 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000046974

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
Q2PGG3

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K12235

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
LIHPFDH

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
943371at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q2PGG3

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
3.40.50.1100, 2 hits

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR001926 PLP-dep
IPR000634 Ser/Thr_deHydtase_PyrdxlP-BS
IPR036052 Trypto_synt_PLP_dependent

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00291 PALP, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF53686 SSF53686, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00165 DEHYDRATASE_SER_THR, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q2PGG3-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MEANREKYAA DILSIKEAHD RIKPYIHRTP VLTSESLNSI SGRSLFFKCE
60 70 80 90 100
CLQKGGAFKF RGACNAVLSL DAEQAAKGVV THSSGNHAAA LSLAAKIQGI
110 120 130 140 150
PAYIVVPKGA PKCKVDNVIR YGGKVIWSEA TMSSREEIAS KVLQETGSVL
160 170 180 190 200
IHPYNDGRII SGQGTIALEL LEQIQEIDAI VVPISGGGLI SGVALAAKSI
210 220 230 240 250
KPSIRIIAAE PKGADDAAQS KVAGKIITLP VTNTIADGLR ASLGDLTWPV
260 270 280 290 300
VRDLVDDVVT LEECEIIEAM KMCYEILKVS VEPSGAIGLA AVLSNSFRNN
310 320 330
PSCRDCKNIG IVLSGGNVDL GSLWDSFKSS K
Length:331
Mass (Da):35,068
Last modified:February 7, 2006 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iF4FC4EE39DD60A7A
GO

<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence CAB39935 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.Curated
The sequence CAB78207 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB206823 mRNA Translation: BAE72067.1
AL049500 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB39935.1 Sequence problems.
AL161532 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB78207.1 Sequence problems.
CP002687 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE83032.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
T04211

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_192901.2, NM_117233.3

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl plant genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblPlantsi
AT4G11640.1; AT4G11640.1; AT4G11640

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
826769

Gramene; a comparative resource for plants

More...
Gramenei
AT4G11640.1; AT4G11640.1; AT4G11640

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ath:AT4G11640

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB206823 mRNA Translation: BAE72067.1
AL049500 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB39935.1 Sequence problems.
AL161532 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB78207.1 Sequence problems.
CP002687 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE83032.1
PIRiT04211
RefSeqiNP_192901.2, NM_117233.3

3D structure databases

SMRiQ2PGG3
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT4G11640.1

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ2PGG3
PRIDEiQ2PGG3

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT4G11640.1; AT4G11640.1; AT4G11640
GeneIDi826769
GrameneiAT4G11640.1; AT4G11640.1; AT4G11640
KEGGiath:AT4G11640

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT4G11640
TAIRilocus:2139767 AT4G11640

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1251 Eukaryota
COG1171 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000046974
InParanoidiQ2PGG3
KOiK12235
OMAiLIHPFDH
OrthoDBi943371at2759
PhylomeDBiQ2PGG3

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT4G11640-MONOMER
MetaCyc:MONOMER-14684
BRENDAi5.1.1.18 399

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q2PGG3

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ2PGG3 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ2PGG3 AT

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.1100, 2 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001926 PLP-dep
IPR000634 Ser/Thr_deHydtase_PyrdxlP-BS
IPR036052 Trypto_synt_PLP_dependent
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00291 PALP, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF53686 SSF53686, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00165 DEHYDRATASE_SER_THR, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiSRR_ARATH
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q2PGG3
Secondary accession number(s): Q9T0D1
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 28, 2012
Last sequence update: February 7, 2006
Last modified: December 11, 2019
This is version 97 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
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