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Entry version 132 (25 May 2022)
Sequence version 1 (01 Nov 1996)
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Protein

Thioredoxin reductase

Gene

TRXR

Organism
Plasmodium falciparum (isolate FCH-5)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADPH to thioredoxins TRX1, TRX2 and TRX3, which in turn act as reductants of disulfide containing proteins (PubMed:8892299).

Able to reduce nitroglutathione (GSNO), a compound involved in the transport of nitric oxide (NO); however, TRX1 is more efficient in reducing GSNO. Has no catalytic activity towards oxidized glutathione (GSSG) (By similarity).

By similarity1 Publication

Miscellaneous

There are 2 isoforms resulting from alternative translation initiation. The displayed sequence is likely to represent the shorter isoform.Curated
In Plasmodium, the C-terminal redox center, which acts as the active site, is formed by two cysteines while in mammalian TRXR this redox center is composed of a cysteine-selenocysteine active site.By similarity

Caution

Was originally thought to be a glutathione reductase.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

FADBy similarityNote: Binds 1 FAD per subunit.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=4.1 µM for NADPH (at 20 degrees Celsius and pH 7.4)1 Publication
  2. KM=66 µM for E.coli thioredoxin (at 37 degrees Celsius and pH 7.6)1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei161FAD; via amide nitrogen and carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Binding sitei357FADBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei509Proton acceptorBy similarity1
Binding sitei509FAD; via carbonyl oxygen; shared with dimeric partnerBy similarity1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi51 – 52FADBy similarity2
Nucleotide bindingi71 – 74FADBy similarity4
Nucleotide bindingi87 – 88FADBy similarity2
Nucleotide bindingi92 – 96FADBy similarity5
Nucleotide bindingi364 – 366FADBy similarity3

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
LigandFAD, Flavoprotein, NADP

Enzyme and pathway databases

SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

More...
SABIO-RKi
Q25861

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Thioredoxin reductase1 Publication (EC:1.8.1.91 Publication)
Short name:
PfTrxR1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:TRXR1 Publication
Synonyms:GR1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiPlasmodium falciparum (isolate FCH-5)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri132416 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaSarAlveolataApicomplexaAconoidasidaHaemosporidaPlasmodiidaePlasmodiumPlasmodium (Laverania)

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00000679861 – 541Thioredoxin reductaseAdd BLAST541

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi88 ↔ 93Redox-activeBy similarity
Disulfide bondi535 ↔ 540Redox-activeBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer.

1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

AlphaFold Protein Structure Database

More...
AlphaFoldDBi
Q25861

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
Q25861

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni438 – 452Loop important for the interaction with TRX1By similarityAdd BLAST15

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Redox-active center

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
3.50.50.60, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR036188, FAD/NAD-bd_sf
IPR023753, FAD/NAD-binding_dom
IPR016156, FAD/NAD-linked_Rdtase_dimer_sf
IPR001100, Pyr_nuc-diS_OxRdtase
IPR004099, Pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase_dimer
IPR012999, Pyr_OxRdtase_I_AS
IPR006338, Thioredoxin/glutathione_Rdtase

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF07992, Pyr_redox_2, 1 hit
PF02852, Pyr_redox_dim, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF000350, Mercury_reductase_MerA, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51905, SSF51905, 1 hit
SSF55424, SSF55424, 1 hit

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR01438, TGR, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00076, PYRIDINE_REDOX_1, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q25861-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MCKDKNEKKN YEHVNANEKN GYLASEKNEL TKNKVEEHTY DYDYVVIGGG
60 70 80 90 100
PGGMASAKEA AAHGARVLLF DYVKPSSQGT KWGIGGTCVN VGCVPKKLMH
110 120 130 140 150
YAGHMGSIFK LDSKAYGWKF DNLKHDWKKL VTTVQSHIRS LNFSYMTGLR
160 170 180 190 200
SSKVKYINGL AKLKDKNTVS YYLKGDLSKE ETVTGKYILI ATGCRPHIPD
210 220 230 240 250
DVEGAKELSI TSDDIFSLKK DPGKTLVVGA SYVALECSGF LNSLGYDVTV
260 270 280 290 300
AVRSIVLRGF DQQCAVKVKL YMEEQGVMFK NGILPKKLTK MDDKILVEFS
310 320 330 340 350
DKTSELYDTV LYAIGRKGDI DGLNLESLNM NVNKSNNKII ADHLSCTNIP
360 370 380 390 400
SIFAVGDVAE NVPELAPVAI KAGEILARRL FKDSDEIMDY SYIPTSIYTP
410 420 430 440 450
IEYGACGYSE EKAYELYGKS NVEVFLQEFN NLEISAVHRQ KHIRAQKDEY
460 470 480 490 500
DLDVSSTCLA KLVCLKNEDN RVIGFHYVGP NAGEVTQGMA LALRLKVKKK
510 520 530 540
DFDNCIGIHP TDAESFMNLF VTISSGLSYA AKGGCGGGKC G
Length:541
Mass (Da):59,686
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i5449D50D7BA5BD9D
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti49 – 51GGP → AGS in CAA58583 (PubMed:8892299).Curated3
Sequence conflicti512 – 517DAESFM → AAEELS in CAA58583 (PubMed:8892299).Curated6

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
X87095 mRNA Translation: CAA60574.1
X83603 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA58583.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
S57658

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X87095 mRNA Translation: CAA60574.1
X83603 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA58583.1
PIRiS57658

3D structure databases

AlphaFoldDBiQ25861
SMRiQ25861
ModBaseiSearch...

Enzyme and pathway databases

SABIO-RKiQ25861

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.50.50.60, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR036188, FAD/NAD-bd_sf
IPR023753, FAD/NAD-binding_dom
IPR016156, FAD/NAD-linked_Rdtase_dimer_sf
IPR001100, Pyr_nuc-diS_OxRdtase
IPR004099, Pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase_dimer
IPR012999, Pyr_OxRdtase_I_AS
IPR006338, Thioredoxin/glutathione_Rdtase
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF07992, Pyr_redox_2, 1 hit
PF02852, Pyr_redox_dim, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF000350, Mercury_reductase_MerA, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF51905, SSF51905, 1 hit
SSF55424, SSF55424, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01438, TGR, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00076, PYRIDINE_REDOX_1, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiTRXR_PLAF5
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q25861
Secondary accession number(s): Q25864
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 1, 2000
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: May 25, 2022
This is version 132 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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