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Protein

Polycomb protein esc

Gene

esc

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Polycomb group (PcG) protein. While PcG proteins are generally required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development, this protein is specifically required during the first 6 hours of embryogenesis to establish the repressed state. Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, which methylates 'Lys-9' and 'Lys-27' residues of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. The Esc/E(z) complex is necessary but not sufficient for the repression of homeotic target genes, suggesting that the recruitment of the distinct PRC1 complex is also required.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • enzyme activator activity Source: FlyBase
  • identical protein binding Source: IntAct

GO - Biological processi

  • chromatin-mediated maintenance of transcription Source: UniProtKB
  • chromatin silencing Source: FlyBase
  • gene silencing Source: FlyBase
  • histone H3-K27 methylation Source: FlyBase
  • histone H3-K9 methylation Source: GOC
  • histone methylation Source: FlyBase
  • multicellular organism development Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: GO_Central
  • positive regulation of histone methylation Source: FlyBase

Keywordsi

Molecular functionChromatin regulator, Developmental protein, Repressor
Biological processTranscription, Transcription regulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-DME-212300 PRC2 methylates histones and DNA
R-DME-2559580 Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
R-DME-8953750 Transcriptional Regulation by E2F6
SignaLinkiQ24338

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Polycomb protein esc
Alternative name(s):
Protein extra sex combs
Gene namesi
Name:esc
ORF Names:CG14941
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraHolometabolaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
Proteomesi
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome 2L

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0000588 esc

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi64Y → F in esc1; induces homeotic transformation; when associated with R-240. 1
Mutagenesisi210 – 211GG → AA: Strongly reduces phosphorylation and the interaction with E(z). 1 Publication2
Mutagenesisi216 – 218RDE → AAA: Strongly reduces phosphorylation and the interaction with E(z). 1 Publication3
Mutagenesisi240L → R in esc1; induces homeotic transformation; when associated with F-64. 1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000509721 – 425Polycomb protein escAdd BLAST425

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei15Phosphoserine1 Publication1

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ24338
PRIDEiQ24338

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ24338

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Widely expressed.

Developmental stagei

Expressed both maternally and zygotically. Strongly expressed in the oocyte and in early embryos, then decreases at the end of embryogenesis. Weakly expressed in third instar larvae. Transiently required between 2 and 6 hours of embryogenesis to establish PcG silencing and promote viable adults.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiFBgn0000588 Expressed in 25 organ(s), highest expression level in egg cell
ExpressionAtlasiQ24338 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ24338 DM

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, composed of Caf1, esc, E(z), Su(z)12, and possibly pho. The Esc/E(z) complex may also associate with Pcl and Rpd3 during early embryogenesis. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Interacts with corto in vitro.8 Publications

Binary interactionsi

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi60648, 28 interactors
DIPiDIP-20069N
IntActiQ24338, 9 interactors
MINTiQ24338
STRINGi7227.FBpp0079907

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ24338
SMRiQ24338
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Repeati71 – 114WD 1Add BLAST44
Repeati126 – 165WD 2Add BLAST40
Repeati168 – 208WD 3Add BLAST41
Repeati214 – 253WD 4Add BLAST40
Repeati284 – 321WD 5Add BLAST38
Repeati340 – 379WD 6Add BLAST40
Repeati388 – 424WD 7Add BLAST37

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the WD repeat ESC family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, WD repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1034 Eukaryota
ENOG410XRQI LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000047334
InParanoidiQ24338
KOiK11462
OMAiHVCIAIF
OrthoDBiEOG091G082Z
PhylomeDBiQ24338

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.130.10.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR037352 Polycomb_EED
IPR015943 WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom_sf
IPR001680 WD40_repeat
IPR019775 WD40_repeat_CS
IPR017986 WD40_repeat_dom
IPR036322 WD40_repeat_dom_sf
PANTHERiPTHR10253 PTHR10253, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00400 WD40, 2 hits
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00320 WD40, 5 hits
SUPFAMiSSF50978 SSF50978, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00678 WD_REPEATS_1, 1 hit
PS50082 WD_REPEATS_2, 2 hits
PS50294 WD_REPEATS_REGION, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q24338-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MSSDKVKNGN EPEESEESCG DESASYTTNS TTSRSKSPSS STRSKRRGRR
60 70 80 90 100
STKSKPKSRA AYKYDTHVKE NHGANIFGVA FNTLLGKDEP QVFATAGSNR
110 120 130 140 150
VTVYECPRQG GMQLLHCYAD PDPDEVFYTC AWSYDLKTSS PLLAAAGYRG
160 170 180 190 200
VIRVIDVEQN EAVGNYIGHG QAINELKFHP HKLQLLLSGS KDHAIRLWNI
210 220 230 240 250
QSHVCIAILG GVEGHRDEVL SIDFNMRGDR IVSSGMDHSL KLWCLNTPEF
260 270 280 290 300
HHKIELSNTF SQEKSTLPFP TVTKHFPDFS TRDIHRNYVD CVQWFGNFVL
310 320 330 340 350
SKSCENAIVC WKPGQLHQSF EQVKPSDSSC TIIAEFEYDE CEIWFVRFGF
360 370 380 390 400
NPWQKVIALG NQQGKVYVWE LDPSDPEGAH MTTLHNSRSV ATVRQIAFSR
410 420
DASVLVYVCD DATVWRWNRR QTTSI
Length:425
Mass (Da):47,988
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i511C305E5DE86727
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L41867 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA86427.1
AE014134 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF53124.1
AY069796 mRNA Translation: AAL39941.1
PIRiS58672
RefSeqiNP_477431.1, NM_058083.4
UniGeneiDm.1948

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0080325; FBpp0079907; FBgn0000588
GeneIDi34595
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG14941

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L41867 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA86427.1
AE014134 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF53124.1
AY069796 mRNA Translation: AAL39941.1
PIRiS58672
RefSeqiNP_477431.1, NM_058083.4
UniGeneiDm.1948

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ24338
SMRiQ24338
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi60648, 28 interactors
DIPiDIP-20069N
IntActiQ24338, 9 interactors
MINTiQ24338
STRINGi7227.FBpp0079907

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ24338

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ24338
PRIDEiQ24338

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0080325; FBpp0079907; FBgn0000588
GeneIDi34595
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG14941

Organism-specific databases

CTDi34595
FlyBaseiFBgn0000588 esc

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1034 Eukaryota
ENOG410XRQI LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000047334
InParanoidiQ24338
KOiK11462
OMAiHVCIAIF
OrthoDBiEOG091G082Z
PhylomeDBiQ24338

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-DME-212300 PRC2 methylates histones and DNA
R-DME-2559580 Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
R-DME-8953750 Transcriptional Regulation by E2F6
SignaLinkiQ24338

Miscellaneous databases

GenomeRNAii34595
PROiPR:Q24338

Gene expression databases

BgeeiFBgn0000588 Expressed in 25 organ(s), highest expression level in egg cell
ExpressionAtlasiQ24338 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ24338 DM

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.130.10.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR037352 Polycomb_EED
IPR015943 WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom_sf
IPR001680 WD40_repeat
IPR019775 WD40_repeat_CS
IPR017986 WD40_repeat_dom
IPR036322 WD40_repeat_dom_sf
PANTHERiPTHR10253 PTHR10253, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00400 WD40, 2 hits
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00320 WD40, 5 hits
SUPFAMiSSF50978 SSF50978, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00678 WD_REPEATS_1, 1 hit
PS50082 WD_REPEATS_2, 2 hits
PS50294 WD_REPEATS_REGION, 1 hit
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiESC_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q24338
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 28, 2003
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: November 7, 2018
This is version 172 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. Drosophila
    Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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