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Protein

Kynureninase

Gene

KYNU

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hydroxy form. Also has cysteine-conjugate-beta-lyase activity.5 Publications

Caution

It has been reported that this enzyme possesses no measurable activity against L-kynurenine and is subject to inhibition by both L-kynurenine and D-kynurenine at pH 7.9.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

pyridoxal 5'-phosphate1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Inhibited by o-methoxybenzoylalanine (OMBA).2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=493 µM for L-kynurenine (at pH 7.0)4 Publications
  2. KM=28.3 µM for DL-3-hydroxykynurenine (at pH 7.0)4 Publications
  3. KM=3.0 µM for DL-3-hydroxykynurenine (at pH 7.9)4 Publications

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 8.25 with DL-3-hydroxykynurenine as substrate.4 Publications

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: L-kynurenine degradation

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes L-alanine and anthranilate from L-kynurenine.UniRule annotation
    Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Kynureninase (KYNU), Kynureninase (KYNU), Kynureninase (KYNU)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway L-kynurenine degradation, which is itself part of Amino-acid degradation.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes L-alanine and anthranilate from L-kynurenine, the pathway L-kynurenine degradation and in Amino-acid degradation.

    Pathwayi: NAD(+) biosynthesis

    This protein is involved in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes quinolinate from L-kynurenine.UniRule annotation1 Publication
    Proteins known to be involved in the 3 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO)
    2. Kynureninase (KYNU), Kynureninase (KYNU), Kynureninase (KYNU)
    3. 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAAO)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway NAD(+) biosynthesis, which is itself part of Cofactor biosynthesis.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes quinolinate from L-kynurenine, the pathway NAD(+) biosynthesis and in Cofactor biosynthesis.

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei137Pyridoxal phosphate; via amide nitrogenUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei138Pyridoxal phosphateUniRule annotation1 Publication1
    Binding sitei221Pyridoxal phosphateUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei250Pyridoxal phosphateUniRule annotation1 Publication1
    Binding sitei253Pyridoxal phosphateUniRule annotation1 Publication1
    Binding sitei275Pyridoxal phosphateUniRule annotation1 Publication1
    Binding sitei305Pyridoxal phosphateUniRule annotation1 Publication1
    Binding sitei333Pyridoxal phosphateUniRule annotation1 Publication1

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionHydrolase
    Biological processPyridine nucleotide biosynthesis
    LigandPyridoxal phosphate

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    More...
    BioCyci
    MetaCyc:HS03952-MONOMER

    BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

    More...
    BRENDAi
    3.7.1.3 2681

    Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

    More...
    Reactomei
    R-HSA-71240 Tryptophan catabolism

    SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

    More...
    SABIO-RKi
    Q16719

    UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

    More...
    UniPathwayi
    UPA00253;UER00329

    UPA00334;UER00455

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    KynureninaseUniRule annotation (EC:3.7.1.3UniRule annotation4 Publications)
    Alternative name(s):
    L-kynurenine hydrolaseUniRule annotation
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:KYNUUniRule annotationImported
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
    • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 2

    Organism-specific databases

    Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources

    More...
    EuPathDBi
    HostDB:ENSG00000115919.14

    Human Gene Nomenclature Database

    More...
    HGNCi
    HGNC:6469 KYNU

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

    More...
    MIMi
    605197 gene

    neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

    More...
    neXtProti
    NX_Q16719

    <p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

    Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm

    <p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

    Hydroxykynureninuria (HYXKY)2 Publications
    The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Disease descriptionAn inborn error of amino acid metabolism characterized by massive urinary excretion of large amounts of kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and xanthurenic acid. Affected individuals manifest renal tubular dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, psychomotor retardation, non-progressive encephalopathy, and muscular hypertonia.
    See also OMIM:236800
    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_054401198T → A in HYXKY; reduced 3-hydroxykynureninase activity. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs606231307EnsemblClinVar.1
    Vertebral, cardiac, renal, and limb defects syndrome 2 (VCRL2)1 Publication
    The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Disease descriptionAn autosomal recessive congenital malformation syndrome characterized by vertebral segmentation abnormalities, congenital cardiac defects, renal defects, and distal mild limb defects.
    See also OMIM:617661
    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Natural variantiVAR_080254156 – 465Missing in VCRL2; strongly reduced 3-hydroxykynureninase activity. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST310

    Keywords - Diseasei

    Disease mutation

    Organism-specific databases

    DisGeNET

    More...
    DisGeNETi
    8942

    MalaCards human disease database

    More...
    MalaCardsi
    KYNU
    MIMi236800 phenotype
    617661 phenotype

    Open Targets

    More...
    OpenTargetsi
    ENSG00000115919

    Orphanet; a database dedicated to information on rare diseases and orphan drugs

    More...
    Orphaneti
    79155 Encephalopathy due to hydroxykynureninuria

    The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

    More...
    PharmGKBi
    PA30258

    Chemistry databases

    ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

    More...
    ChEMBLi
    CHEMBL5100

    Drug and drug target database

    More...
    DrugBanki
    DB07069 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid
    DB00160 L-Alanine
    DB00114 Pyridoxal Phosphate

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

    More...
    BioMutai
    KYNU

    Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

    More...
    DMDMi
    3913982

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00002186571 – 465KynureninaseAdd BLAST465

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei1N-acetylmethionineCombined sources1
    Modified residuei276N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysine1

    Keywords - PTMi

    Acetylation

    Proteomic databases

    Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

    More...
    EPDi
    Q16719

    MaxQB - The MaxQuant DataBase

    More...
    MaxQBi
    Q16719

    PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

    More...
    PaxDbi
    Q16719

    PeptideAtlas

    More...
    PeptideAtlasi
    Q16719

    PRoteomics IDEntifications database

    More...
    PRIDEi
    Q16719

    ProteomicsDB human proteome resource

    More...
    ProteomicsDBi
    61040
    61041 [Q16719-2]

    PTM databases

    iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

    More...
    iPTMneti
    Q16719

    Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

    More...
    PhosphoSitePlusi
    Q16719

    <p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

    Expressed in all tissues tested (heart, brain placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas). Highest levels found in placenta, liver and lung. Expressed in all brain regions.2 Publications

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

    Increased levels in several cerebral and systemic inflammatory conditions.

    Gene expression databases

    Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

    More...
    Bgeei
    ENSG00000115919 Expressed in 184 organ(s), highest expression level in palpebral conjunctiva

    CleanEx database of gene expression profiles

    More...
    CleanExi
    HS_KYNU

    ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

    More...
    ExpressionAtlasi
    Q16719 baseline and differential

    Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

    More...
    Genevisiblei
    Q16719 HS

    Organism-specific databases

    Human Protein Atlas

    More...
    HPAi
    HPA031686

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.UniRule annotation1 Publication

    GO - Molecular functioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

    More...
    BioGridi
    114454, 45 interactors

    Protein interaction database and analysis system

    More...
    IntActi
    Q16719, 9 interactors

    STRING: functional protein association networks

    More...
    STRINGi
    9606.ENSP00000264170

    Chemistry databases

    BindingDB database of measured binding affinities

    More...
    BindingDBi
    Q16719

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1465
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details

    3D structure databases

    Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

    More...
    ProteinModelPortali
    Q16719

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    Q16719

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    Miscellaneous databases

    Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

    More...
    EvolutionaryTracei
    Q16719

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni165 – 168Pyridoxal phosphate binding4

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the kynureninase family.UniRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

    More...
    eggNOGi
    KOG3846 Eukaryota
    COG3844 LUCA

    Ensembl GeneTree

    More...
    GeneTreei
    ENSGT00390000008033

    The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

    More...
    HOGENOMi
    HOG000242438

    The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

    More...
    HOVERGENi
    HBG001170

    InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

    More...
    InParanoidi
    Q16719

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K01556

    Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

    More...
    OMAi
    AGWWGHD

    Database of Orthologous Groups

    More...
    OrthoDBi
    EOG091G077R

    Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

    More...
    PhylomeDBi
    Q16719

    TreeFam database of animal gene trees

    More...
    TreeFami
    TF300707

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

    More...
    Gene3Di
    3.40.640.10, 1 hit
    3.90.1150.10, 1 hit

    HAMAP database of protein families

    More...
    HAMAPi
    MF_01970 Kynureninase, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR000192 Aminotrans_V_dom
    IPR010111 Kynureninase
    IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase
    IPR015422 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_dom1
    IPR015421 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major

    The PANTHER Classification System

    More...
    PANTHERi
    PTHR14084 PTHR14084, 1 hit

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF00266 Aminotran_5, 1 hit

    PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

    More...
    PIRSFi
    PIRSF038800 KYNU, 1 hit

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    More...
    SUPFAMi
    SSF53383 SSF53383, 1 hit

    TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

    More...
    TIGRFAMsi
    TIGR01814 kynureninase, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2+)i

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

    This entry has 2 described isoforms and 5 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

    Isoform 1 (identifier: Q16719-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MEPSSLELPA DTVQRIAAEL KCHPTDERVA LHLDEEDKLR HFRECFYIPK
    60 70 80 90 100
    IQDLPPVDLS LVNKDENAIY FLGNSLGLQP KMVKTYLEEE LDKWAKIAAY
    110 120 130 140 150
    GHEVGKRPWI TGDESIVGLM KDIVGANEKE IALMNALTVN LHLLMLSFFK
    160 170 180 190 200
    PTPKRYKILL EAKAFPSDHY AIESQLQLHG LNIEESMRMI KPREGEETLR
    210 220 230 240 250
    IEDILEVIEK EGDSIAVILF SGVHFYTGQH FNIPAITKAG QAKGCYVGFD
    260 270 280 290 300
    LAHAVGNVEL YLHDWGVDFA CWCSYKYLNA GAGGIAGAFI HEKHAHTIKP
    310 320 330 340 350
    ALVGWFGHEL STRFKMDNKL QLIPGVCGFR ISNPPILLVC SLHASLEIFK
    360 370 380 390 400
    QATMKALRKK SVLLTGYLEY LIKHNYGKDK AATKKPVVNI ITPSHVEERG
    410 420 430 440 450
    CQLTITFSVP NKDVFQELEK RGVVCDKRNP NGIRVAPVPL YNSFHDVYKF
    460
    TNLLTSILDS AETKN
    Length:465
    Mass (Da):52,352
    Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iBDD136BE18C79EBB
    GO
    Isoform 2 (identifier: Q16719-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         302-307: LVGWFG → RSEFFN
         308-465: Missing.

    Note: No experimental confirmation available.
    Show »
    Length:307
    Mass (Da):34,635
    Checksum:i9219F37B19D2163E
    GO

    <p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

    There are 5 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
    EntryEntry nameProtein names
    Gene namesLengthAnnotation
    A0A087X297A0A087X297_HUMAN
    Kynureninase
    KYNU
    236Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    B8ZZA3B8ZZA3_HUMAN
    Kynureninase
    KYNU
    148Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    A0A087WYM2A0A087WYM2_HUMAN
    Kynureninase
    KYNU
    168Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    A0A087WYQ7A0A087WYQ7_HUMAN
    Kynureninase
    KYNU
    157Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    F8WEP1F8WEP1_HUMAN
    Kynureninase
    KYNU
    76Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports information derived from mass spectrometry experiments done on the entire protein or on biologically active derived peptide(s).<p><a href='/help/mass_spectrometry' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mass spectrometryi

    Molecular mass is 52400 Da from positions 1 - 465. Determined by MALDI. The reported mass is given to only three significant figures.1 Publication

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Natural variantiVAR_080254156 – 465Missing in VCRL2; strongly reduced 3-hydroxykynureninase activity. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST310
    Natural variantiVAR_049724188R → Q. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs2304705EnsemblClinVar.1
    Natural variantiVAR_054401198T → A in HYXKY; reduced 3-hydroxykynureninase activity. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs606231307EnsemblClinVar.1
    Natural variantiVAR_022092412K → E1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9013Ensembl.1

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting. The information stored in this subsection is used to automatically construct alternative protein sequence(s) for display.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_042739302 – 307LVGWFG → RSEFFN in isoform 2. Curated6
    Alternative sequenceiVSP_042740308 – 465Missing in isoform 2. CuratedAdd BLAST158

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U57721 mRNA Translation: AAC50650.1
    AK315343 mRNA Translation: BAG37742.1
    CR457423 mRNA Translation: CAG33704.1
    AC013437 Genomic DNA No translation available.
    AC013444 Genomic DNA No translation available.
    CH471058 Genomic DNA Translation: EAX11599.1
    CH471058 Genomic DNA Translation: EAX11600.1
    CH471058 Genomic DNA Translation: EAX11601.1
    BC000879 mRNA Translation: AAH00879.1

    The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

    More...
    CCDSi
    CCDS2183.1 [Q16719-1]
    CCDS33299.1 [Q16719-2]

    Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

    More...
    PIRi
    G02652

    NCBI Reference Sequences

    More...
    RefSeqi
    NP_001028170.1, NM_001032998.1 [Q16719-2]
    NP_001186170.1, NM_001199241.1 [Q16719-1]
    NP_003928.1, NM_003937.2 [Q16719-1]
    XP_016860706.1, XM_017005217.1 [Q16719-2]

    UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

    More...
    UniGenei
    Hs.470126

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

    More...
    Ensembli
    ENST00000264170; ENSP00000264170; ENSG00000115919 [Q16719-1]
    ENST00000375773; ENSP00000364928; ENSG00000115919 [Q16719-2]
    ENST00000409512; ENSP00000386731; ENSG00000115919 [Q16719-1]

    Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    More...
    GeneIDi
    8942

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    hsa:8942

    UCSC genome browser

    More...
    UCSCi
    uc002tvk.4 human [Q16719-1]

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U57721 mRNA Translation: AAC50650.1
    AK315343 mRNA Translation: BAG37742.1
    CR457423 mRNA Translation: CAG33704.1
    AC013437 Genomic DNA No translation available.
    AC013444 Genomic DNA No translation available.
    CH471058 Genomic DNA Translation: EAX11599.1
    CH471058 Genomic DNA Translation: EAX11600.1
    CH471058 Genomic DNA Translation: EAX11601.1
    BC000879 mRNA Translation: AAH00879.1
    CCDSiCCDS2183.1 [Q16719-1]
    CCDS33299.1 [Q16719-2]
    PIRiG02652
    RefSeqiNP_001028170.1, NM_001032998.1 [Q16719-2]
    NP_001186170.1, NM_001199241.1 [Q16719-1]
    NP_003928.1, NM_003937.2 [Q16719-1]
    XP_016860706.1, XM_017005217.1 [Q16719-2]
    UniGeneiHs.470126

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:

    Protein Data Bank Europe

    More...
    PDBei

    Protein Data Bank RCSB

    More...
    RCSB PDBi

    Protein Data Bank Japan

    More...
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    2HZPX-ray2.00A1-465[»]
    3E9KX-ray1.70A1-465[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ16719
    SMRiQ16719
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi114454, 45 interactors
    IntActiQ16719, 9 interactors
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000264170

    Chemistry databases

    BindingDBiQ16719
    ChEMBLiCHEMBL5100
    DrugBankiDB07069 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid
    DB00160 L-Alanine
    DB00114 Pyridoxal Phosphate

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiQ16719
    PhosphoSitePlusiQ16719

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMutaiKYNU
    DMDMi3913982

    Proteomic databases

    EPDiQ16719
    MaxQBiQ16719
    PaxDbiQ16719
    PeptideAtlasiQ16719
    PRIDEiQ16719
    ProteomicsDBi61040
    61041 [Q16719-2]

    Protocols and materials databases

    The DNASU plasmid repository

    More...
    DNASUi
    8942
    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000264170; ENSP00000264170; ENSG00000115919 [Q16719-1]
    ENST00000375773; ENSP00000364928; ENSG00000115919 [Q16719-2]
    ENST00000409512; ENSP00000386731; ENSG00000115919 [Q16719-1]
    GeneIDi8942
    KEGGihsa:8942
    UCSCiuc002tvk.4 human [Q16719-1]

    Organism-specific databases

    Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

    More...
    CTDi
    8942
    DisGeNETi8942
    EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000115919.14

    GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

    More...
    GeneCardsi
    KYNU
    HGNCiHGNC:6469 KYNU
    HPAiHPA031686
    MalaCardsiKYNU
    MIMi236800 phenotype
    605197 gene
    617661 phenotype
    neXtProtiNX_Q16719
    OpenTargetsiENSG00000115919
    Orphaneti79155 Encephalopathy due to hydroxykynureninuria
    PharmGKBiPA30258

    GenAtlas: human gene database

    More...
    GenAtlasi
    Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG3846 Eukaryota
    COG3844 LUCA
    GeneTreeiENSGT00390000008033
    HOGENOMiHOG000242438
    HOVERGENiHBG001170
    InParanoidiQ16719
    KOiK01556
    OMAiAGWWGHD
    OrthoDBiEOG091G077R
    PhylomeDBiQ16719
    TreeFamiTF300707

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayi
    UPA00253;UER00329

    UPA00334;UER00455

    BioCyciMetaCyc:HS03952-MONOMER
    BRENDAi3.7.1.3 2681
    ReactomeiR-HSA-71240 Tryptophan catabolism
    SABIO-RKiQ16719

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

    More...
    ChiTaRSi
    KYNU human
    EvolutionaryTraceiQ16719

    The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

    More...
    GeneWikii
    Kynureninase

    Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

    More...
    GenomeRNAii
    8942

    Protein Ontology

    More...
    PROi
    PR:Q16719

    The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

    More...
    SOURCEi
    Search...

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiENSG00000115919 Expressed in 184 organ(s), highest expression level in palpebral conjunctiva
    CleanExiHS_KYNU
    ExpressionAtlasiQ16719 baseline and differential
    GenevisibleiQ16719 HS

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.40.640.10, 1 hit
    3.90.1150.10, 1 hit
    HAMAPiMF_01970 Kynureninase, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR000192 Aminotrans_V_dom
    IPR010111 Kynureninase
    IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase
    IPR015422 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_dom1
    IPR015421 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major
    PANTHERiPTHR14084 PTHR14084, 1 hit
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF00266 Aminotran_5, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF038800 KYNU, 1 hit
    SUPFAMiSSF53383 SSF53383, 1 hit
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR01814 kynureninase, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiKYNU_HUMAN
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q16719
    Secondary accession number(s): B2RCZ5
    , D3DP79, Q6I9T2, Q9BVW3
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 15, 1998
    Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
    Last modified: December 5, 2018
    This is version 171 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
    3. Human chromosome 2
      Human chromosome 2: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    5. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    6. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    7. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
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