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Entry version 209 (29 Sep 2021)
Sequence version 3 (20 Feb 2007)
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Protein

Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1

Gene

ACOX1

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. First enzyme of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway.

4 Publications

Shows highest activity against medium-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and activity decreases with increasing chain length.

1 Publication

Is active against a much broader range of substrates and shows activity towards very long-chain acyl-CoAs. Is twice as active as isoform 1 against 16-hydroxy-palmitoyl-CoA and is 25% more active against 1,16-hexadecanodioyl-CoA.

1 Publication

Miscellaneous

Isoform 1 and isoform 2 can reverse the Acox1 null phenotype in mouse which is characterized by severe microvesicular hepatic steatosis, sustained activation of PPARA, spontaneous massive peroxisome proliferation and eventual development of hepatocellular carcinomas. Isoform 2 is more effective in reversal of the phenotype than isoform 1 (PubMed:20195242).1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

FAD1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=73 µM for palmitoyl-CoA (isoform 1)1 Publication
  2. KM=90 µM for palmitoyl-CoA (isoform 2)1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 8.5 for isoform 1 and 7.5-8.5 for isoform 2.1 Publication

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature for isoform 1 at pH 7.5 is 40 degrees Celsius with no activity at 50 degrees Celsius. Optimum temperature for isoform 2 at pH 7.5 is 47.5 degrees Celsius with 57% activity retained at 50 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation

This protein is involved in the pathway peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, which is part of Lipid metabolism.1 Publication
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation and in Lipid metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei139FADBy similarity1
Binding sitei178FAD; via amide nitrogenBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei421Proton acceptorBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
Biological processFatty acid metabolism, Lipid metabolism
LigandFAD, Flavoprotein

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
MetaCyc:HS08589-MONOMER

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

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BRENDAi
1.3.3.6, 2681

Pathway Commons web resource for biological pathway data

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PathwayCommonsi
Q15067

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-HSA-1989781, PPARA activates gene expression [Q15067-1]
R-HSA-2046106, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) metabolism [Q15067-2]
R-HSA-390247, Beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids [Q15067-2]
R-HSA-9033241, Peroxisomal protein import
R-HSA-9033500, TYSND1 cleaves peroxisomal proteins

SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

More...
SABIO-RKi
Q15067

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

More...
SIGNORi
Q15067

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00661

Chemistry databases

SwissLipids knowledge resource for lipid biology

More...
SwissLipidsi
SLP:000000536 [Q15067-1]
SLP:000000537 [Q15067-2]

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 11 Publication (EC:1.3.3.61 Publication)
Short name:
AOX1 Publication
Alternative name(s):
Palmitoyl-CoA oxidase1 Publication
Straight-chain acyl-CoA oxidase1 Publication
Short name:
SCOX1 Publication
Cleaved into the following 3 chains:
Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1, A chainBy similarity
Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1, B chainBy similarity
Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1, C chainBy similarity
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:ACOX1Imported
Synonyms:ACOX
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 17

Organism-specific databases

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

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HGNCi
HGNC:119, ACOX1

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

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MIMi
609751, gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

More...
neXtProti
NX_Q15067

Eukaryotic Pathogen, Vector and Host Database Resources

More...
VEuPathDBi
HostDB:ENSG00000161533

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Peroxisome

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

Adrenoleukodystrophy, pseudoneonatal (Pseudo-NALD)3 Publications
The disease is caused by variants affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA peroxisomal single-enzyme disorder of fatty acid beta-oxidation, resulting in clinical manifestations that remind neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Clinical features include mental retardation, leukodystrophy, seizures, mild hepatomegaly, hearing deficit. Pseudo-NALD is characterized by increased plasma levels of very-long chain fatty acids, due to decreased or absent peroxisome acyl-CoA oxidase activity. Peroxisomes are intact and functioning.
Related information in OMIM
Mitchell syndrome (MITCH)1 Publication
The gene represented in this entry is involved in disease pathogenesis.
Disease descriptionA disorder characterized by episodic demyelination, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and sensorineural hearing loss.
Related information in OMIM
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_083893237N → S in MITCH; gain-of-function; increased dimerization; increased protein levels and peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase function; increased levels of reactive oxygen species; no effect on VLCFA levels; no effect on peroxisome location; causes Schwann cell death and myelination defects. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1567876984EnsemblClinVar.1

Keywords - Diseasei

Deafness, Disease variant, Neuropathy

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

More...
DisGeNETi
51

MalaCards human disease database

More...
MalaCardsi
ACOX1
MIMi264470, phenotype
618960, phenotype

Open Targets

More...
OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000161533

Orphanet; a database dedicated to information on rare diseases and orphan drugs

More...
Orphaneti
2971, Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency

The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

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PharmGKBi
PA21

Miscellaneous databases

Pharos NIH Druggable Genome Knowledgebase

More...
Pharosi
Q15067, Tbio

Chemistry databases

ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

More...
ChEMBLi
CHEMBL4105748

Drug and drug target database

More...
DrugBanki
DB07930, (3R)-3-HYDROXYDODECANOIC ACID
DB03147, Flavin adenine dinucleotide
DB09328, Vayarin

Genetic variation databases

BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

More...
BioMutai
ACOX1

Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

More...
DMDMi
126302511

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00002046771 – 660Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1, A chainAdd BLAST660
ChainiPRO_00004475001 – 468Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1, B chainBy similarityAdd BLAST468
ChainiPRO_0000447501469 – 660Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1, C chainBy similarityAdd BLAST192

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei26PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei89N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei90N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei216N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei241N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei255N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
Modified residuei267N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
Modified residuei272N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei349N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei437N6-acetyllysine; alternateCombined sources1
Modified residuei437N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei446N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei446N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei500N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
Modified residuei504N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
Modified residuei512N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei512N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei542N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei637N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei637N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei643N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei649PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei651N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei654N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections ('Function', 'PTM / Processing', 'Pathology and Biotech') according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei468 – 469CleavageBy similarity2

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

More...
EPDi
Q15067

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

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jPOSTi
Q15067

MassIVE - Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment

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MassIVEi
Q15067

MaxQB - The MaxQuant DataBase

More...
MaxQBi
Q15067

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
Q15067

PeptideAtlas

More...
PeptideAtlasi
Q15067

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

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PRIDEi
Q15067

ProteomicsDB: a multi-organism proteome resource

More...
ProteomicsDBi
24812
60421 [Q15067-1]
60422 [Q15067-2]

Consortium for Top Down Proteomics

More...
TopDownProteomicsi
Q15067-1 [Q15067-1]

PTM databases

GlyGen: Computational and Informatics Resources for Glycoscience

More...
GlyGeni
Q15067, 1 site, 1 O-linked glycan (1 site)

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
Q15067

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

More...
PhosphoSitePlusi
Q15067

SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events

More...
SwissPalmi
Q15067

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at protein level'.<br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Widely expressed with highest levels of isoform 1 and isoform 2 detected in testis. Isoform 1 is expressed at higher levels than isoform 2 in liver and kidney while isoform 2 levels are higher in brain, lung, muscle, white adipose tissue and testis. Levels are almost equal in heart.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSG00000161533, Expressed in liver and 240 other tissues

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

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ExpressionAtlasi
Q15067, baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
Q15067, HS

Organism-specific databases

Human Protein Atlas

More...
HPAi
ENSG00000161533, Tissue enhanced (liver)

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer (PubMed:32169171).

Interacts with LONP2 (PubMed:18281296).

2 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

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BioGRIDi
106567, 70 interactors

Protein interaction database and analysis system

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IntActi
Q15067, 30 interactors

STRING: functional protein association networks

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STRINGi
9606.ENSP00000293217

Miscellaneous databases

RNAct, Protein-RNA interaction predictions for model organisms.

More...
RNActi
Q15067, protein

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
Q15067

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi658 – 660Microbody targeting signal3

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the acyl-CoA oxidase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

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eggNOGi
KOG0136, Eukaryota

Ensembl GeneTree

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GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000157287

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_014629_3_1_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

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InParanoidi
Q15067

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
GRRFFTM

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
416859at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q15067

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

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TreeFami
TF300672

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd01150, AXO, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.540.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR034171, ACO
IPR029320, Acyl-CoA_ox_N
IPR006091, Acyl-CoA_Oxase/DH_cen-dom
IPR012258, Acyl-CoA_oxidase
IPR002655, Acyl-CoA_oxidase_C
IPR036250, AcylCo_DH-like_C
IPR037069, AcylCoA_DH/ox_N_sf
IPR009100, AcylCoA_DH/oxidase_NM_dom

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR10909, PTHR10909, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF01756, ACOX, 1 hit
PF02770, Acyl-CoA_dh_M, 1 hit
PF14749, Acyl-CoA_ox_N, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF000168, Acyl-CoA_oxidase, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF47203, SSF47203, 2 hits
SSF56645, SSF56645, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (3+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 3 <p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 3 described isoforms and 6 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q15067-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: ACOX1a, SCOX-exon 3I

This isoform has been chosen as the <div> <p><b>What is the canonical sequence?</b><p><a href='/help/canonical_and_isoforms' target='_top'>More...</a></p>canonicali sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MNPDLRRERD SASFNPELLT HILDGSPEKT RRRREIENMI LNDPDFQHED
60 70 80 90 100
LNFLTRSQRY EVAVRKSAIM VKKMREFGIA DPDEIMWFKK LHLVNFVEPV
110 120 130 140 150
GLNYSMFIPT LLNQGTTAQK EKWLLSSKGL QIIGTYAQTE MGHGTHLRGL
160 170 180 190 200
ETTATYDPET QEFILNSPTV TSIKWWPGGL GKTSNHAIVL AQLITKGKCY
210 220 230 240 250
GLHAFIVPIR EIGTHKPLPG ITVGDIGPKF GYDEIDNGYL KMDNHRIPRE
260 270 280 290 300
NMLMKYAQVK PDGTYVKPLS NKLTYGTMVF VRSFLVGEAA RALSKACTIA
310 320 330 340 350
IRYSAVRHQS EIKPGEPEPQ ILDFQTQQYK LFPLLATAYA FQFVGAYMKE
360 370 380 390 400
TYHRINEGIG QGDLSELPEL HALTAGLKAF TSWTANTGIE ACRMACGGHG
410 420 430 440 450
YSHCSGLPNI YVNFTPSCTF EGENTVMMLQ TARFLMKSYD QVHSGKLVCG
460 470 480 490 500
MVSYLNDLPS QRIQPQQVAV WPTMVDINSP ESLTEAYKLR AARLVEIAAK
510 520 530 540 550
NLQKEVIHRK SKEVAWNLTS VDLVRASEAH CHYVVVKLFS EKLLKIQDKA
560 570 580 590 600
IQAVLRSLCL LYSLYGISQN AGDFLQGSIM TEPQITQVNQ RVKELLTLIR
610 620 630 640 650
SDAVALVDAF DFQDVTLGSV LGRYDGNVYE NLFEWAKNSP LNKAEVHESY
660
KHLKSLQSKL
Length:660
Mass (Da):74,424
Last modified:February 20, 2007 - v3
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iD713768A47374EA1
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q15067-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: ACOX1b, SCOX-exon 3II

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     90-131: KLHLVNFVEP...KWLLSSKGLQ → NFVHRGRPEP...RFFMPAWNLE

Show »
Length:660
Mass (Da):74,668
Checksum:i761C97B5043F9068
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: Q15067-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-38: Missing.
     90-131: KLHLVNFVEP...KWLLSSKGLQ → NFVHRGRPEP...RFFMPAWNLE

Show »
Length:622
Mass (Da):70,136
Checksum:iFE52A881C050EB78
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 6 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
K7ESC7K7ESC7_HUMAN
Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase...
ACOX1
153Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
K7ENF1K7ENF1_HUMAN
Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase...
ACOX1
132Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
I3L2U4I3L2U4_HUMAN
Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase...
ACOX1
71Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
I3L0T4I3L0T4_HUMAN
Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase...
ACOX1
223Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
I3L4S5I3L4S5_HUMAN
Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase...
ACOX1
108Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
K7ELT1K7ELT1_HUMAN
Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase...
ACOX1
156Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence CAD97622 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Extended N-terminus.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti27P → L in CAA50574 (PubMed:8040306).Curated1
Sequence conflicti80A → R in CAA50574 (PubMed:8040306).Curated1
Sequence conflicti84E → D in CAD97622 (PubMed:17974005).Curated1
Sequence conflicti119Q → E in AAB30019 (PubMed:8117268).Curated1
Sequence conflicti200Y → H in AAA18595 (PubMed:7876265).Curated1
Sequence conflicti212 – 213IG → NR in AAA19113 (PubMed:8159712).Curated2
Sequence conflicti212 – 213IG → NR in AAA19114 (PubMed:8159712).Curated2
Sequence conflicti212 – 213IG → NR in AAA18595 (PubMed:7876265).Curated2
Sequence conflicti264T → P in AAA19113 (PubMed:8159712).Curated1
Sequence conflicti264T → P in AAA19114 (PubMed:8159712).Curated1
Sequence conflicti264T → P in AAA18595 (PubMed:7876265).Curated1
Sequence conflicti332F → L in AAA18595 (PubMed:7876265).Curated1
Sequence conflicti449C → R in AAA18595 (PubMed:7876265).Curated1
Sequence conflicti490R → L in BAF85654 (PubMed:14702039).Curated1
Sequence conflicti531C → L in AAA19113 (PubMed:8159712).Curated1
Sequence conflicti531C → L in AAA19114 (PubMed:8159712).Curated1
Sequence conflicti531C → L in AAA18595 (PubMed:7876265).Curated1
Sequence conflicti534 – 535VV → GL in AAA19113 (PubMed:8159712).Curated2
Sequence conflicti534 – 535VV → GL in AAA19114 (PubMed:8159712).Curated2
Sequence conflicti534 – 535VV → GL in AAA18595 (PubMed:7876265).Curated2
Sequence conflicti615V → A in CAA50574 (PubMed:8040306).Curated1
Sequence conflicti650Y → YH in AAB30019 (PubMed:8117268).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_06704064Missing in pseudo-NALD. 1 Publication1
Natural variantiVAR_048182101G → S. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs3744032Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_030619153T → I1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs17855420EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_025789178G → C in pseudo-NALD. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs118204091EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_067041184S → L in pseudo-NALD. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs780887410Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_067042231G → V in pseudo-NALD. 1 Publication1
Natural variantiVAR_083893237N → S in MITCH; gain-of-function; increased dimerization; increased protein levels and peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase function; increased levels of reactive oxygen species; no effect on VLCFA levels; no effect on peroxisome location; causes Schwann cell death and myelination defects. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1567876984EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_025790278M → V in pseudo-NALD. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs118204090EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_067043309Q → R in pseudo-NALD. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs118204092EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_067044310S → P in pseudo-NALD. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs758962364Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_021529312I → M5 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1135640EnsemblClinVar.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_0461291 – 38Missing in isoform 3. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST38
Alternative sequenceiVSP_00014690 – 131KLHLV…SKGLQ → NFVHRGRPEPLDLHLGMFLP TLLHQATAEQQERFFMPAWN LE in isoform 2 and isoform 3. 4 PublicationsAdd BLAST42

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
U03268 U03267 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA19113.1
U03268 U03267 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA19114.1
U07866 mRNA Translation: AAA18595.1
X71440 mRNA Translation: CAA50574.1
S69189 mRNA Translation: AAB30019.2
AK291793 mRNA Translation: BAF84482.1
AK292965 mRNA Translation: BAF85654.1
AK296409 mRNA Translation: BAG59073.1
BX537380 mRNA Translation: CAD97622.1 Different initiation.
AC040980 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AC087289 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471099 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW89351.1
BC008767 mRNA Translation: AAH08767.1
BC010425 mRNA Translation: AAH10425.1

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

More...
CCDSi
CCDS11734.1 [Q15067-2]
CCDS11735.1 [Q15067-1]

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A54942
B54942
I38095

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001171968.1, NM_001185039.1 [Q15067-3]
NP_004026.2, NM_004035.6 [Q15067-2]
NP_009223.2, NM_007292.5 [Q15067-1]

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENST00000293217; ENSP00000293217; ENSG00000161533 [Q15067-2]
ENST00000301608; ENSP00000301608; ENSG00000161533 [Q15067-1]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
51

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
hsa:51

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
uc002jqe.5, human [Q15067-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U03268 U03267 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA19113.1
U03268 U03267 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA19114.1
U07866 mRNA Translation: AAA18595.1
X71440 mRNA Translation: CAA50574.1
S69189 mRNA Translation: AAB30019.2
AK291793 mRNA Translation: BAF84482.1
AK292965 mRNA Translation: BAF85654.1
AK296409 mRNA Translation: BAG59073.1
BX537380 mRNA Translation: CAD97622.1 Different initiation.
AC040980 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AC087289 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471099 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW89351.1
BC008767 mRNA Translation: AAH08767.1
BC010425 mRNA Translation: AAH10425.1
CCDSiCCDS11734.1 [Q15067-2]
CCDS11735.1 [Q15067-1]
PIRiA54942
B54942
I38095
RefSeqiNP_001171968.1, NM_001185039.1 [Q15067-3]
NP_004026.2, NM_004035.6 [Q15067-2]
NP_009223.2, NM_007292.5 [Q15067-1]

3D structure databases

SMRiQ15067
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi106567, 70 interactors
IntActiQ15067, 30 interactors
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000293217

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL4105748
DrugBankiDB07930, (3R)-3-HYDROXYDODECANOIC ACID
DB03147, Flavin adenine dinucleotide
DB09328, Vayarin
SwissLipidsiSLP:000000536 [Q15067-1]
SLP:000000537 [Q15067-2]

PTM databases

GlyGeniQ15067, 1 site, 1 O-linked glycan (1 site)
iPTMnetiQ15067
PhosphoSitePlusiQ15067
SwissPalmiQ15067

Genetic variation databases

BioMutaiACOX1
DMDMi126302511

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ15067
jPOSTiQ15067
MassIVEiQ15067
MaxQBiQ15067
PaxDbiQ15067
PeptideAtlasiQ15067
PRIDEiQ15067
ProteomicsDBi24812
60421 [Q15067-1]
60422 [Q15067-2]
TopDownProteomicsiQ15067-1 [Q15067-1]

Protocols and materials databases

Antibodypedia a portal for validated antibodies

More...
Antibodypediai
19646, 388 antibodies

The DNASU plasmid repository

More...
DNASUi
51

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000293217; ENSP00000293217; ENSG00000161533 [Q15067-2]
ENST00000301608; ENSP00000301608; ENSG00000161533 [Q15067-1]
GeneIDi51
KEGGihsa:51
UCSCiuc002jqe.5, human [Q15067-1]

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
51
DisGeNETi51

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

More...
GeneCardsi
ACOX1
HGNCiHGNC:119, ACOX1
HPAiENSG00000161533, Tissue enhanced (liver)
MalaCardsiACOX1
MIMi264470, phenotype
609751, gene
618960, phenotype
neXtProtiNX_Q15067
OpenTargetsiENSG00000161533
Orphaneti2971, Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency
PharmGKBiPA21
VEuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000161533

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0136, Eukaryota
GeneTreeiENSGT00940000157287
HOGENOMiCLU_014629_3_1_1
InParanoidiQ15067
OMAiGRRFFTM
OrthoDBi416859at2759
PhylomeDBiQ15067
TreeFamiTF300672

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00661
BioCyciMetaCyc:HS08589-MONOMER
BRENDAi1.3.3.6, 2681
PathwayCommonsiQ15067
ReactomeiR-HSA-1989781, PPARA activates gene expression [Q15067-1]
R-HSA-2046106, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) metabolism [Q15067-2]
R-HSA-390247, Beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids [Q15067-2]
R-HSA-9033241, Peroxisomal protein import
R-HSA-9033500, TYSND1 cleaves peroxisomal proteins
SABIO-RKiQ15067
SIGNORiQ15067

Miscellaneous databases

BioGRID ORCS database of CRISPR phenotype screens

More...
BioGRID-ORCSi
51, 52 hits in 1020 CRISPR screens

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

More...
ChiTaRSi
ACOX1, human

The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

More...
GeneWikii
ACOX1

Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

More...
GenomeRNAii
51
PharosiQ15067, Tbio

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q15067
RNActiQ15067, protein

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

More...
SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000161533, Expressed in liver and 240 other tissues
ExpressionAtlasiQ15067, baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ15067, HS

Family and domain databases

CDDicd01150, AXO, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.10.540.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR034171, ACO
IPR029320, Acyl-CoA_ox_N
IPR006091, Acyl-CoA_Oxase/DH_cen-dom
IPR012258, Acyl-CoA_oxidase
IPR002655, Acyl-CoA_oxidase_C
IPR036250, AcylCo_DH-like_C
IPR037069, AcylCoA_DH/ox_N_sf
IPR009100, AcylCoA_DH/oxidase_NM_dom
PANTHERiPTHR10909, PTHR10909, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01756, ACOX, 1 hit
PF02770, Acyl-CoA_dh_M, 1 hit
PF14749, Acyl-CoA_ox_N, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF000168, Acyl-CoA_oxidase, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF47203, SSF47203, 2 hits
SSF56645, SSF56645, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiACOX1_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q15067
Secondary accession number(s): A8K6X8
, A8KAA0, B4DK61, F5GYQ8, Q12863, Q15068, Q15101, Q16131, Q7Z3W5, Q9UD31
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: February 20, 2007
Last modified: September 29, 2021
This is version 209 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 17
    Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with genetic variants
    List of human entries with genetic variants
  3. Human variants curated from literature reports
    Index of human variants curated from literature reports
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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