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Entry version 189 (16 Oct 2019)
Sequence version 3 (16 Apr 2002)
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Protein

Lysine--tRNA ligase

Gene

KARS1

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a 2 step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA (PubMed:9278442, PubMed:18029264, PubMed:18272479). When secreted, acts as a signaling molecule that induces immune response through the activation of monocyte/macrophages (PubMed:15851690). Catalyzes the synthesis of the signaling molecule diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), and thereby mediates disruption of the complex between HINT1 and MITF and the concomitant activation of MITF transcriptional activity (PubMed:5338216, PubMed:14975237, PubMed:19524539, PubMed:23159739).7 Publications
(Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 virus GAG protein, facilitating the selective packaging of tRNA3(Lys), the primer for reverse transcription initiation.1 Publication

Miscellaneous

Shares a bidirectional promoter with TERF2IP/RAP1.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Up-regulated by DARS and EEF1A1, but not by AIMP2.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

Kcat is 0.31 (sec-1) for aminoacylation for tRNA(Lys).1 Publication
  1. KM=1.19 µM for tRNA(Lys)1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei277Substrate; via carbonyl oxygen2 Publications1
    Binding sitei301Substrate3 Publications1
    Binding sitei339Substrate3 Publications1
    Binding sitei341Substrate3 Publications1
    Binding sitei497Substrate3 Publications1
    Binding sitei501Substrate3 Publications1

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi323 – 325ATP1 Publication3
    Nucleotide bindingi331 – 332ATP1 Publication2
    Nucleotide bindingi494 – 495ATP1 Publication2
    Nucleotide bindingi550 – 553ATP1 Publication4

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionAminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, Ligase, Transferase
    Biological processHost-virus interaction, Protein biosynthesis
    LigandATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

    More...
    BRENDAi
    6.1.1.6 2681

    Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

    More...
    Reactomei
    R-HSA-2408522 Selenoamino acid metabolism
    R-HSA-379716 Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation
    R-HSA-379726 Mitochondrial tRNA aminoacylation

    SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

    More...
    SIGNORi
    Q15046

    Protein family/group databases

    MoonProt database of moonlighting proteins

    More...
    MoonProti
    Q15046

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Lysine--tRNA ligase (EC:2.7.7.-3 Publications, EC:6.1.1.63 Publications)
    Alternative name(s):
    Lysyl-tRNA synthetase
    Short name:
    LysRS
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:KARS1Imported
    Synonyms:KARS, KIAA0070
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
    • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 16

    Organism-specific databases

    Human Gene Nomenclature Database

    More...
    HGNCi
    HGNC:6215 KARS1

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

    More...
    MIMi
    601421 gene

    neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

    More...
    neXtProti
    NX_Q15046

    <p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

    Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cell membrane, Cytoplasm, Membrane, Mitochondrion, Nucleus, Secreted

    <p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, recessive, intermediate type, B (CMTRIB)1 Publication
    The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Disease descriptionA form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a disorder of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy, initially of the peroneal muscles and later of the distal muscles of the arms. Recessive intermediate forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease are characterized by clinical and pathologic features intermediate between demyelinating and axonal peripheral neuropathies, and motor median nerve conduction velocities ranging from 25 to 45 m/sec.
    Related information in OMIM
    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_064911105L → H in CMTRIB; severely affects enzyme activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs267607194Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_064912274I → M in CMTRIB. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs146955132Ensembl.1
    Deafness, autosomal recessive, 89 (DFNB89)2 Publications
    The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Disease descriptionA form of non-syndromic deafness characterized by bilateral, prelingual, moderate to severe hearing loss affecting all frequencies.
    Related information in OMIM
    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Natural variantiVAR_070233145Y → H in DFNB89. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs397514745Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_070234349D → N in DFNB89. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs397514746Ensembl.1

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology_and_biotech_section">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi1 – 65Missing : Loss of nuclear localization, but no effect on packaging into HIV-1. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST65
    Mutagenesisi101V → D, R or W: Disrupts interaction with AIMP2 and the multisynthase complex. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi207S → A: Strongly reduced production of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). Reduced protein phosphorylation. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi207S → D: Phosphomimetic mutant that strongly enhances translocation into the nucleus and production of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). Almost complete loss of tRNA ligase activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi207S → R: Strongly decreased tRNA ligase activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi207S → Y: Almost complete loss of tRNA ligase activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi346D → R: Induces protein aggregation. Releases from the subunit complex. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi540G → Y: Disrupts interaction with AIMP2 and the multisynthase complex. Increases production of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). Almost complete loss of tRNA ligase activity. 1 Publication1

    Keywords - Diseasei

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Deafness, Disease mutation, Neurodegeneration, Neuropathy, Non-syndromic deafness

    Organism-specific databases

    DisGeNET

    More...
    DisGeNETi
    3735

    MalaCards human disease database

    More...
    MalaCardsi
    KARS
    MIMi613641 phenotype
    613916 phenotype

    Open Targets

    More...
    OpenTargetsi
    ENSG00000065427

    Orphanet; a database dedicated to information on rare diseases and orphan drugs

    More...
    Orphaneti
    254334 Autosomal recessive intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type B
    90636 Autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural deafness type DFNB

    The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

    More...
    PharmGKBi
    PA30016

    Miscellaneous databases

    Pharos NIH Druggable Genome Knowledgebase

    More...
    Pharosi
    Q15046

    Chemistry databases

    ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

    More...
    ChEMBLi
    CHEMBL5575

    Drug and drug target database

    More...
    DrugBanki
    DB00123 L-Lysine

    DrugCentral

    More...
    DrugCentrali
    Q15046

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

    More...
    BioMutai
    KARS

    Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

    More...
    DMDMi
    20178333

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section indicates that the initiator methionine is cleaved from the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/init_met' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Initiator methionineiRemovedCombined sources1 Publication
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001527652 – 597Lysine--tRNA ligaseAdd BLAST596

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei2N-acetylalanineCombined sources1 Publication1
    Modified residuei88N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
    Modified residuei141N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
    Modified residuei207Phosphoserine1 Publication1
    Modified residuei590PhosphoserineBy similarity1
    Modified residuei591PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
    Modified residuei596PhosphoserineBy similarity1

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

    Phosphorylated on a serine residue after mast cell stimulation with immunoglobulin E (IgE).By similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    The CPTAC Assay portal

    More...
    CPTACi
    CPTAC-231

    Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

    More...
    EPDi
    Q15046

    jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

    More...
    jPOSTi
    Q15046

    MassIVE - Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment

    More...
    MassIVEi
    Q15046

    MaxQB - The MaxQuant DataBase

    More...
    MaxQBi
    Q15046

    PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

    More...
    PaxDbi
    Q15046

    PeptideAtlas

    More...
    PeptideAtlasi
    Q15046

    PRoteomics IDEntifications database

    More...
    PRIDEi
    Q15046

    ProteomicsDB: a multi-organism proteome resource

    More...
    ProteomicsDBi
    60395 [Q15046-1]
    60396 [Q15046-2]

    PTM databases

    CarbonylDB database of protein carbonylation sites

    More...
    CarbonylDBi
    Q15046

    iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

    More...
    iPTMneti
    Q15046

    Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

    More...
    PhosphoSitePlusi
    Q15046

    SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events

    More...
    SwissPalmi
    Q15046

    <p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

    Gene expression databases

    Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

    More...
    Bgeei
    ENSG00000065427 Expressed in 238 organ(s), highest expression level in thoracic mammary gland

    ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

    More...
    ExpressionAtlasi
    Q15046 baseline and differential

    Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

    More...
    Genevisiblei
    Q15046 HS

    Organism-specific databases

    Human Protein Atlas

    More...
    HPAi
    HPA041345
    HPA041550

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

    Homodimer and tetradimer (PubMed:18272479, PubMed:23159739, PubMed:26074468, PubMed:28887846). Part of the multisynthetase complex (MSC), a multisubunit complex that groups tRNA ligases for Arg (RARS), Asp (DARS), Gln (QARS), Ile (IARS), Leu (LARS), Lys (KARS), Met (MARS) the bifunctional ligase for Glu and Pro (EPRS) and the auxiliary subunits AIMP1/p43, AIMP2/p38 and EEF1E1/p18 (PubMed:19131329, PubMed:19289464, PubMed:24312579, PubMed:23159739).

    Interacts with AIMP2 (via N-terminus) and MITF (PubMed:9878398, PubMed:14975237, PubMed:15220430, PubMed:23159739, PubMed:26074468).

    Interacts with TARSL2 (PubMed:24312579).

    11 Publications

    (Microbial infection) Interacts directly with HIV-1 virus GAG protein (PubMed:12756246, PubMed:15220430).

    2 Publications

    <p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section%27">Interaction</a> section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

    GO - Molecular functioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

    More...
    BioGridi
    109938, 184 interactors

    CORUM comprehensive resource of mammalian protein complexes

    More...
    CORUMi
    Q15046

    Database of interacting proteins

    More...
    DIPi
    DIP-29725N

    Protein interaction database and analysis system

    More...
    IntActi
    Q15046, 57 interactors

    Molecular INTeraction database

    More...
    MINTi
    Q15046

    STRING: functional protein association networks

    More...
    STRINGi
    9606.ENSP00000325448

    Chemistry databases

    BindingDB database of measured binding affinities

    More...
    BindingDBi
    Q15046

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1597
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details

    3D structure databases

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    Q15046

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

    More...
    PDBe-KBi
    Search...

    Miscellaneous databases

    Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

    More...
    EvolutionaryTracei
    Q15046

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term ‘domain’ is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

    The N-terminal domain (1-65) of the cytoplasmic isoform is a functional tRNA-binding domain, is required for nuclear localization, is involved in the interaction with DARS, but has a repulsive role in the binding to EEF1A1. A central domain (208-259) is involved in homodimerization and is required for interaction with HIV-1 GAG and incorporation into virions. The C-terminal domain (452-597) is not required for interaction with AIMP2.2 Publications

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Phylogenomic databases

    evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

    More...
    eggNOGi
    KOG1885 Eukaryota
    COG1190 LUCA

    Ensembl GeneTree

    More...
    GeneTreei
    ENSGT00950000182783

    The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

    More...
    HOGENOMi
    HOG000236577

    InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

    More...
    InParanoidi
    Q15046

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K04567

    Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

    More...
    OMAi
    EIFGEKC

    Database of Orthologous Groups

    More...
    OrthoDBi
    837479at2759

    Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

    More...
    PhylomeDBi
    Q15046

    TreeFam database of animal gene trees

    More...
    TreeFami
    TF300365

    Family and domain databases

    Conserved Domains Database

    More...
    CDDi
    cd00775 LysRS_core, 1 hit

    HAMAP database of protein families

    More...
    HAMAPi
    MF_00252 Lys_tRNA_synth_class2, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR004364 aa-tRNA-synt_II
    IPR006195 aa-tRNA-synth_II
    IPR002313 Lys-tRNA-ligase_II
    IPR034762 Lys-tRNA-ligase_II_bac/euk
    IPR018149 Lys-tRNA-synth_II_C
    IPR012340 NA-bd_OB-fold
    IPR004365 NA-bd_OB_tRNA

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF00152 tRNA-synt_2, 1 hit
    PF01336 tRNA_anti-codon, 1 hit

    PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

    More...
    PIRSFi
    PIRSF039101 LysRS2, 1 hit

    Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

    More...
    PRINTSi
    PR00982 TRNASYNTHLYS

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    More...
    SUPFAMi
    SSF50249 SSF50249, 1 hit

    TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

    More...
    TIGRFAMsi
    TIGR00499 lysS_bact, 1 hit

    PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

    More...
    PROSITEi
    View protein in PROSITE
    PS50862 AA_TRNA_LIGASE_II, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2+)i

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

    This entry has 2 described isoforms and 7 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

    Isoform Cytoplasmic (identifier: Q15046-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the <div> <p><b>What is the canonical sequence?</b><p><a href='/help/canonical_and_isoforms' target='_top'>More...</a></p>canonicali sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MAAVQAAEVK VDGSEPKLSK NELKRRLKAE KKVAEKEAKQ KELSEKQLSQ
    60 70 80 90 100
    ATAAATNHTT DNGVGPEEES VDPNQYYKIR SQAIHQLKVN GEDPYPHKFH
    110 120 130 140 150
    VDISLTDFIQ KYSHLQPGDH LTDITLKVAG RIHAKRASGG KLIFYDLRGE
    160 170 180 190 200
    GVKLQVMANS RNYKSEEEFI HINNKLRRGD IIGVQGNPGK TKKGELSIIP
    210 220 230 240 250
    YEITLLSPCL HMLPHLHFGL KDKETRYRQR YLDLILNDFV RQKFIIRSKI
    260 270 280 290 300
    ITYIRSFLDE LGFLEIETPM MNIIPGGAVA KPFITYHNEL DMNLYMRIAP
    310 320 330 340 350
    ELYHKMLVVG GIDRVYEIGR QFRNEGIDLT HNPEFTTCEF YMAYADYHDL
    360 370 380 390 400
    MEITEKMVSG MVKHITGSYK VTYHPDGPEG QAYDVDFTPP FRRINMVEEL
    410 420 430 440 450
    EKALGMKLPE TNLFETEETR KILDDICVAK AVECPPPRTT ARLLDKLVGE
    460 470 480 490 500
    FLEVTCINPT FICDHPQIMS PLAKWHRSKE GLTERFELFV MKKEICNAYT
    510 520 530 540 550
    ELNDPMRQRQ LFEEQAKAKA AGDDEAMFID ENFCTALEYG LPPTAGWGMG
    560 570 580 590
    IDRVAMFLTD SNNIKEVLLF PAMKPEDKKE NVATTDTLES TTVGTSV
    Length:597
    Mass (Da):68,048
    Last modified:April 16, 2002 - v3
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iE7770953332D905D
    GO
    Isoform Mitochondrial (identifier: Q15046-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         1-21: MAAVQAAEVKVDGSEPKLSKN → MLTQAAVRLVRGSLRKTSWAEWGHRELRLGQLAPFTAPHKDKSFSDQRS

    Note: Mitochondrial precursor. Contains a mitochondrial transit peptide at positions 1-16.Curated
    Show »
    Length:625
    Mass (Da):71,497
    Checksum:i294DA1CE5A137AD6
    GO

    <p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

    There are 7 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
    EntryEntry nameProtein names
    Gene namesLengthAnnotation
    H3BVA8H3BVA8_HUMAN
    Lysine--tRNA ligase
    KARS
    256Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    H3BPV7H3BPV7_HUMAN
    Lysine--tRNA ligase
    KARS
    104Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    H3BRC9H3BRC9_HUMAN
    Lysine--tRNA ligase
    KARS
    76Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    H3BSN6H3BSN6_HUMAN
    Lysine--tRNA ligase
    KARS
    86Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    H3BMR9H3BMR9_HUMAN
    Lysine--tRNA ligase
    KARS
    67Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    H3BQK5H3BQK5_HUMAN
    Lysine--tRNA ligase
    KARS
    124Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    J3KRL2J3KRL2_HUMAN
    Lysine--tRNA ligase
    KARS
    102Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

    The sequence BAA06688 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Extended N-terminus.Curated

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Isoform Mitochondrial (identifier: Q15046-2)
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti48R → G in AAG30114 (PubMed:10952987).Curated1

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Natural variantiVAR_064911105L → H in CMTRIB; severely affects enzyme activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs267607194Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_070233145Y → H in DFNB89. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs397514745Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_052640179G → A. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs11557665Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_064912274I → M in CMTRIB. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs146955132Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_070234349D → N in DFNB89. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs397514746Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_079741350L → H Found in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and mild intellectual disability together with proximal muscle weakness; unknown pathological significance. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_079742390P → R Found in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and mild intellectual disability together with proximal muscle weakness; unknown pathological significance. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_079743438R → W Found in patients with severe infantile visual loss with progressive microcephaly and developmental delay as well as seizures and abnormal subcortical white matter; unknown pathological significance. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs761527468Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_079744477R → H Probable disease-associated mutation found in a family with sensorineural hearing loss and leukoencephalopathy; decreases tRNA-lysine aminoacylation; induces protein aggregation; releases from the subunit complex; no effect on cytoplasmic location; no effect on oligomerization. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs778748895Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_079745505P → S Probable disease-associated mutation found in a family with sensorineural hearing loss and leukoencephalopathy; decreases tRNA-lysine aminoacylation; slightly induces protein aggregation; no effect on cytoplasmic location; no effect on oligomerization. 1 Publication1
    Natural variantiVAR_079746525E → K Found in patients with severe infantile visual loss with progressive microcephaly and developmental delay as well as seizures and abnormal subcortical white matter; unknown pathological significance. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs770522582Ensembl.1
    Natural variantiVAR_016105595T → S3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs6834Ensembl.1

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_0384811 – 21MAAVQ…KLSKN → MLTQAAVRLVRGSLRKTSWA EWGHRELRLGQLAPFTAPHK DKSFSDQRS in isoform Mitochondrial. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST21

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    D32053 mRNA Translation: BAA22084.1
    AF285758 mRNA Translation: AAG30114.1
    D31890 mRNA Translation: BAA06688.1 Different initiation.
    AC025287 Genomic DNA No translation available.
    CH471114 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW95622.1
    CH471114 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW95624.1
    BC004132 mRNA Translation: AAH04132.1

    The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

    More...
    CCDSi
    CCDS10923.1 [Q15046-1]
    CCDS45532.1 [Q15046-2]

    NCBI Reference Sequences

    More...
    RefSeqi
    NP_001123561.1, NM_001130089.1 [Q15046-2]
    NP_005539.1, NM_005548.2 [Q15046-1]

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

    More...
    Ensembli
    ENST00000302445; ENSP00000303043; ENSG00000065427 [Q15046-1]
    ENST00000319410; ENSP00000325448; ENSG00000065427 [Q15046-2]

    Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    More...
    GeneIDi
    3735

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    hsa:3735

    UCSC genome browser

    More...
    UCSCi
    uc002feq.4 human [Q15046-1]

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    D32053 mRNA Translation: BAA22084.1
    AF285758 mRNA Translation: AAG30114.1
    D31890 mRNA Translation: BAA06688.1 Different initiation.
    AC025287 Genomic DNA No translation available.
    CH471114 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW95622.1
    CH471114 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW95624.1
    BC004132 mRNA Translation: AAH04132.1
    CCDSiCCDS10923.1 [Q15046-1]
    CCDS45532.1 [Q15046-2]
    RefSeqiNP_001123561.1, NM_001130089.1 [Q15046-2]
    NP_005539.1, NM_005548.2 [Q15046-1]

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:

    Protein Data Bank Europe

    More...
    PDBei

    Protein Data Bank RCSB

    More...
    RCSB PDBi

    Protein Data Bank Japan

    More...
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    3BJUX-ray2.31A/B/C/D70-582[»]
    4DPGX-ray2.84A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H70-581[»]
    4YCUX-ray2.10A/B70-581[»]
    4YCWX-ray2.90A/B/E/F70-581[»]
    6CHDX-ray2.50A/B1-597[»]
    6ILDX-ray1.88A/B70-581[»]
    6ILHX-ray2.50A/B70-581[»]
    SMRiQ15046
    ModBaseiSearch...
    PDBe-KBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi109938, 184 interactors
    CORUMiQ15046
    DIPiDIP-29725N
    IntActiQ15046, 57 interactors
    MINTiQ15046
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000325448

    Chemistry databases

    BindingDBiQ15046
    ChEMBLiCHEMBL5575
    DrugBankiDB00123 L-Lysine
    DrugCentraliQ15046

    Protein family/group databases

    MoonProtiQ15046

    PTM databases

    CarbonylDBiQ15046
    iPTMnetiQ15046
    PhosphoSitePlusiQ15046
    SwissPalmiQ15046

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMutaiKARS
    DMDMi20178333

    Proteomic databases

    CPTACiCPTAC-231
    EPDiQ15046
    jPOSTiQ15046
    MassIVEiQ15046
    MaxQBiQ15046
    PaxDbiQ15046
    PeptideAtlasiQ15046
    PRIDEiQ15046
    ProteomicsDBi60395 [Q15046-1]
    60396 [Q15046-2]

    Protocols and materials databases

    The DNASU plasmid repository

    More...
    DNASUi
    3735

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000302445; ENSP00000303043; ENSG00000065427 [Q15046-1]
    ENST00000319410; ENSP00000325448; ENSG00000065427 [Q15046-2]
    GeneIDi3735
    KEGGihsa:3735
    UCSCiuc002feq.4 human [Q15046-1]

    Organism-specific databases

    Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

    More...
    CTDi
    3735
    DisGeNETi3735

    GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

    More...
    GeneCardsi
    KARS
    HGNCiHGNC:6215 KARS1
    HPAiHPA041345
    HPA041550
    MalaCardsiKARS
    MIMi601421 gene
    613641 phenotype
    613916 phenotype
    neXtProtiNX_Q15046
    OpenTargetsiENSG00000065427
    Orphaneti254334 Autosomal recessive intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type B
    90636 Autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural deafness type DFNB
    PharmGKBiPA30016

    Human Unidentified Gene-Encoded large proteins database

    More...
    HUGEi
    Search...

    GenAtlas: human gene database

    More...
    GenAtlasi
    Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG1885 Eukaryota
    COG1190 LUCA
    GeneTreeiENSGT00950000182783
    HOGENOMiHOG000236577
    InParanoidiQ15046
    KOiK04567
    OMAiEIFGEKC
    OrthoDBi837479at2759
    PhylomeDBiQ15046
    TreeFamiTF300365

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDAi6.1.1.6 2681
    ReactomeiR-HSA-2408522 Selenoamino acid metabolism
    R-HSA-379716 Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation
    R-HSA-379726 Mitochondrial tRNA aminoacylation
    SIGNORiQ15046

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

    More...
    ChiTaRSi
    KARS human
    EvolutionaryTraceiQ15046

    The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

    More...
    GeneWikii
    KARS_(gene)

    Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

    More...
    GenomeRNAii
    3735
    PharosiQ15046

    Protein Ontology

    More...
    PROi
    PR:Q15046

    The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

    More...
    SOURCEi
    Search...

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiENSG00000065427 Expressed in 238 organ(s), highest expression level in thoracic mammary gland
    ExpressionAtlasiQ15046 baseline and differential
    GenevisibleiQ15046 HS

    Family and domain databases

    CDDicd00775 LysRS_core, 1 hit
    HAMAPiMF_00252 Lys_tRNA_synth_class2, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR004364 aa-tRNA-synt_II
    IPR006195 aa-tRNA-synth_II
    IPR002313 Lys-tRNA-ligase_II
    IPR034762 Lys-tRNA-ligase_II_bac/euk
    IPR018149 Lys-tRNA-synth_II_C
    IPR012340 NA-bd_OB-fold
    IPR004365 NA-bd_OB_tRNA
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF00152 tRNA-synt_2, 1 hit
    PF01336 tRNA_anti-codon, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF039101 LysRS2, 1 hit
    PRINTSiPR00982 TRNASYNTHLYS
    SUPFAMiSSF50249 SSF50249, 1 hit
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR00499 lysS_bact, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS50862 AA_TRNA_LIGASE_II, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiSYK_HUMAN
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q15046
    Secondary accession number(s): A8MSK1
    , D3DUK4, O14946, Q96J25, Q9HB23
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
    Last sequence update: April 16, 2002
    Last modified: October 16, 2019
    This is version 189 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
    3. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
      List of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase entries
    4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    5. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    6. Human chromosome 16
      Human chromosome 16: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    7. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
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