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Protein

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8

Gene

LRP8

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Cell surface receptor for Reelin (RELN) and apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing ligands. LRP8 participates in transmitting the extracellular Reelin signal to intracellular signaling processes, by binding to DAB1 on its cytoplasmic tail. Reelin acts via both the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) and LRP8 to regulate DAB1 tyrosine phosphorylation and microtubule function in neurons. LRP8 has higher affinity for Reelin than VLDLR. LRP8 is thus a key component of the Reelin pathway which governs neuronal layering of the forebrain during embryonic brain development. Binds the endoplasmic reticulum resident receptor-associated protein (RAP). Binds dimers of beta 2-glycoprotein I and may be involved in the suppression of platelet aggregation in the vasculature. Highly expressed in the initial segment of the epididymis, where it affects the functional expression of clusterin and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), two proteins required for sperm maturation. May also function as an endocytic receptor. Not required for endocytic uptake of SEPP1 in the kidney which is mediated by LRP2 (By similarity). Together with its ligand, apolipoprotein E (apoE), may indirectly play a role in the suppression of the innate immune response by controlling the survival of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (By similarity).By similarity3 Publications

Miscellaneous

Natural isoforms of apoE (E2, E3, E4) have similar affinities for LRP8.

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionReceptor
Biological processEndocytosis
LigandCalcium

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-HSA-432142 Platelet sensitization by LDL
R-HSA-975634 Retinoid metabolism and transport

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

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SIGNORi
Q14114

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8
Short name:
LRP-8
Alternative name(s):
Apolipoprotein E receptor 2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:LRP8
Synonyms:APOER2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources

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EuPathDBi
HostDB:ENSG00000157193.14

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

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HGNCi
HGNC:6700 LRP8

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

More...
MIMi
602600 gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

More...
neXtProti
NX_Q14114

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the subcellular compartment where each non-membrane region of a membrane-spanning protein is found.<p><a href='/help/topo_dom' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Topological domaini42 – 826ExtracellularSequence analysisAdd BLAST785
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.<p><a href='/help/transmem' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transmembranei827 – 847HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini848 – 963CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST116

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane, Secreted

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

Myocardial infarction 1 (MCI1)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA condition defined by the irreversible necrosis of heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia.
See also OMIM:608446

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

More...
DisGeNETi
7804

MalaCards human disease database

More...
MalaCardsi
LRP8
MIMi608446 phenotype

Open Targets

More...
OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000157193

The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

More...
PharmGKBi
PA30457

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

More...
BioMutai
LRP8

Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

More...
DMDMi
259016389

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 32Sequence analysisAdd BLAST32
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000001733233 – 963Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8Add BLAST931

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi47 ↔ 59By similarity
Disulfide bondi54 ↔ 72By similarity
Disulfide bondi66 ↔ 81By similarity
Disulfide bondi86 ↔ 98By similarity
Disulfide bondi93 ↔ 111By similarity
Disulfide bondi105 ↔ 122By similarity
Disulfide bondi127 ↔ 141By similarity
Disulfide bondi134 ↔ 154By similarity
Disulfide bondi148 ↔ 163By similarity
Disulfide bondi167 ↔ 179By similarity
Disulfide bondi174 ↔ 192By similarity
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position and type of each covalently attached glycan group (mono-, di-, or polysaccharide).<p><a href='/help/carbohyd' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Glycosylationi176N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi186 ↔ 201By similarity
Disulfide bondi206 ↔ 221By similarity
Disulfide bondi213 ↔ 234By similarity
Disulfide bondi228 ↔ 245By similarity
Disulfide bondi259 ↔ 272By similarity
Disulfide bondi267 ↔ 285By similarity
Disulfide bondi279 ↔ 294By similarity
Disulfide bondi299 ↔ 311By similarity
Disulfide bondi306 ↔ 324By similarity
Disulfide bondi318 ↔ 333By similarity
Disulfide bondi340 ↔ 351By similarity
Disulfide bondi347 ↔ 360By similarity
Disulfide bondi362 ↔ 374By similarity
Disulfide bondi380 ↔ 390By similarity
Disulfide bondi386 ↔ 399By similarity
Disulfide bondi401 ↔ 414By similarity
Glycosylationi441N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi518N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi538N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi772N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi807N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

O-glycosylated. Some alternatively spliced isoforms lack the O-linked sugar domain (By similarity).By similarity
Undergoes sequential, furin and gamma-secretase dependent, proteolytic processing, resulting in the extracellular release of the entire ligand-binding domain as a soluble polypeptide and in the intracellular domain (ICD) release into the cytoplasm. The gamma-secretase-dependent proteolytical processing occurs after the bulk of the extracellular domain has been shed, in a furin-dependent manner, in alternatively spliced isoforms carrying the furin cleavage site. Hypoglycosylation (mainly hypo-O-glycosylation) leads to increased extracellular cleavage, which in turn results in accelerating release of the intracellular domain (ICD) by the gamma-secretase. The resulting receptor fragment is able to inhibit Reelin signaling and in particular the Reelin-induced DAB1 phosphorylation (By similarity).By similarity
Tyrosine phosphorylated upon apoE binding.1 Publication
Ubiquitinated by MYLIP leading to degradation.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

More...
EPDi
Q14114

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

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PaxDbi
Q14114

PeptideAtlas

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PeptideAtlasi
Q14114

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

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PRIDEi
Q14114

ProteomicsDB human proteome resource

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ProteomicsDBi
59819
59820 [Q14114-2]
59821 [Q14114-3]
59822 [Q14114-4]

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

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iPTMneti
Q14114

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

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PhosphoSitePlusi
Q14114

SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events

More...
SwissPalmi
Q14114

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed mainly in brain and placenta. Also expressed in platelets and megakaryocytic cells. Not expressed in the liver.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSG00000157193 Expressed in 200 organ(s), highest expression level in pigmented layer of retina

CleanEx database of gene expression profiles

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CleanExi
HS_LRP8

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

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ExpressionAtlasi
Q14114 baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

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Genevisiblei
Q14114 HS

Organism-specific databases

Human Protein Atlas

More...
HPAi
HPA073031

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Reelin associates with two or more receptor molecules. Interacts with DAB1 and JNK-interacting proteins. Interacts with SNX17 (By similarity). Interacts with PCSK9.By similarity1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section%27">Interaction</a> section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

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BioGridi
113579, 38 interactors

Database of interacting proteins

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DIPi
DIP-48670N

The Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource for Functional Sites in Proteins

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ELMi
Q14114

Protein interaction database and analysis system

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IntActi
Q14114, 22 interactors

STRING: functional protein association networks

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STRINGi
9606.ENSP00000303634

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1963
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

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ProteinModelPortali
Q14114

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
Q14114

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

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MobiDBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

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EvolutionaryTracei
Q14114

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family_and_domains_section">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini46 – 82LDL-receptor class A 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST37
Domaini85 – 123LDL-receptor class A 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST39
Domaini126 – 164LDL-receptor class A 3PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST39
Domaini166 – 202LDL-receptor class A 4PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST37
Domaini205 – 246LDL-receptor class A 5PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST42
Domaini258 – 295LDL-receptor class A 6PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST38
Domaini298 – 334LDL-receptor class A 7PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST37
Domaini336 – 375EGF-like 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST40
Domaini376 – 415EGF-like 2; calcium-bindingPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST40
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section indicates the positions and types of repeated sequence motifs or repeated domains within the protein.<p><a href='/help/repeat' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Repeati462 – 508LDL-receptor class B 1Add BLAST47
Repeati509 – 551LDL-receptor class B 2Add BLAST43
Repeati552 – 595LDL-receptor class B 3Add BLAST44
Repeati596 – 639LDL-receptor class B 4Add BLAST44
Repeati640 – 681LDL-receptor class B 5Add BLAST42

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni740 – 798Clustered O-linked oligosaccharidesAdd BLAST59

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term ‘domain’ is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

The cytoplasmic domain is involved in the binding of DAB1 and in the recruitment of JNK-interacting proteins. Isoforms, which lack part of the cytoplasmic domain, are unable to recruit members of the family of JNK interacting proteins (JIP) to the cytoplasmic tail (By similarity).By similarity

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the LDLR family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

EGF-like domain, Repeat, Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

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eggNOGi
ENOG410IPT5 Eukaryota
ENOG410YQ6J LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

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GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000154819

The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

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HOVERGENi
HBG006250

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

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InParanoidi
Q14114

KEGG Orthology (KO)

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KOi
K20052

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
GEKDCES

Database of Orthologous Groups

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OrthoDBi
EOG091G01MX

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

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PhylomeDBi
Q14114

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

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TreeFami
TF351700

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

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CDDi
cd00112 LDLa, 6 hits

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

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Gene3Di
2.120.10.30, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR011042 6-blade_b-propeller_TolB-like
IPR001881 EGF-like_Ca-bd_dom
IPR013032 EGF-like_CS
IPR000742 EGF-like_dom
IPR000152 EGF-type_Asp/Asn_hydroxyl_site
IPR018097 EGF_Ca-bd_CS
IPR036055 LDL_receptor-like_sf
IPR023415 LDLR_class-A_CS
IPR000033 LDLR_classB_rpt
IPR002172 LDrepeatLR_classA_rpt

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00057 Ldl_recept_a, 7 hits
PF00058 Ldl_recept_b, 5 hits

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

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PRINTSi
PR00261 LDLRECEPTOR

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00181 EGF, 4 hits
SM00179 EGF_CA, 2 hits
SM00192 LDLa, 7 hits
SM00135 LY, 5 hits

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

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SUPFAMi
SSF57424 SSF57424, 7 hits

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00010 ASX_HYDROXYL, 2 hits
PS01186 EGF_2, 2 hits
PS50026 EGF_3, 2 hits
PS01187 EGF_CA, 1 hit
PS01209 LDLRA_1, 7 hits
PS50068 LDLRA_2, 7 hits
PS51120 LDLRB, 5 hits

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (5+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 5 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket
Note: Additional isoforms seem to exist. No differences were observed in the pattern splicing between control and Alzheimer brains.

This entry has 5 described isoforms and 5 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q14114-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: ApoER2 922

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MGLPEPGPLR LLALLLLLLL LLLLQLQHLA AAAADPLLGG QGPAKDCEKD
60 70 80 90 100
QFQCRNERCI PSVWRCDEDD DCLDHSDEDD CPKKTCADSD FTCDNGHCIH
110 120 130 140 150
ERWKCDGEEE CPDGSDESEA TCTKQVCPAE KLSCGPTSHK CVPASWRCDG
160 170 180 190 200
EKDCEGGADE AGCATLCAPH EFQCGNRSCL AAVFVCDGDD DCGDGSDERG
210 220 230 240 250
CADPACGPRE FRCGGDGGGA CIPERWVCDR QFDCEDRSDE AAELCGRPGP
260 270 280 290 300
GATSAPAACA TASQFACRSG ECVHLGWRCD GDRDCKDKSD EADCPLGTCR
310 320 330 340 350
GDEFQCGDGT CVLAIKHCNQ EQDCPDGSDE AGCLQGLNEC LHNNGGCSHI
360 370 380 390 400
CTDLKIGFEC TCPAGFQLLD QKTCGDIDEC KDPDACSQIC VNYKGYFKCE
410 420 430 440 450
CYPGYEMDLL TKNCKAAAGK SPSLIFTNRH EVRRIDLVKR NYSRLIPMLK
460 470 480 490 500
NVVALDVEVA TNRIYWCDLS YRKIYSAYMD KASDPKEQEV LIDEQLHSPE
510 520 530 540 550
GLAVDWVHKH IYWTDSGNKT ISVATVDGGR RRTLFSRNLS EPRAIAVDPL
560 570 580 590 600
RGFMYWSDWG DQAKIEKSGL NGVDRQTLVS DNIEWPNGIT LDLLSQRLYW
610 620 630 640 650
VDSKLHQLSS IDFSGGNRKT LISSTDFLSH PFGIAVFEDK VFWTDLENEA
660 670 680 690 700
IFSANRLNGL EISILAENLN NPHDIVIFHE LKQPRAPDAC ELSVQPNGGC
710 720 730 740 750
EYLCLPAPQI SSHSPKYTCA CPDTMWLGPD MKRCYRAPQS TSTTTLASTM
760 770 780 790 800
TRTVPATTRA PGTTVHRSTY QNHSTETPSL TAAVPSSVSV PRAPSISPST
810 820 830 840 850
LSPATSNHSQ HYANEDSKMG STVTAAVIGI IVPIVVIALL CMSGYLIWRN
860 870 880 890 900
WKRKNTKSMN FDNPVYRKTT EEEDEDELHI GRTAQIGHVY PAAISSFDRP
910 920 930 940 950
LWAEPCLGET REPEDPAPAL KELFVLPGEP RSQLHQLPKN PLSELPVVKS
960
KRVALSLEDD GLP
Length:963
Mass (Da):105,634
Last modified:September 22, 2009 - v4
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iB10DCF72F62DE71C
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q14114-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: ApoER2 906

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     166-295: LCAPHEFQCG...KDKSDEADCP → S
     737-812: APQSTSTTTL...PATSNHSQHY → D
     893-951: Missing.

Show »
Length:700
Mass (Da):77,845
Checksum:iB996C9CAEC69C1E9
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: Q14114-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     893-951: Missing.

Show »
Length:904
Mass (Da):99,092
Checksum:i043E708314261E3C
GO
Isoform 4 (identifier: Q14114-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: ApoER2delta4-7

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     166-166: L → W
     167-336: Missing.

Show »
Length:793
Mass (Da):87,959
Checksum:i1A414B09D40BA1BC
GO
Isoform 5 (identifier: Q14114-5)
Sequence is not available
Note: Contains an insert in the extracellular part which carries a furin cleavage site.
Length:
Mass (Da):

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 5 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
H0YEV6H0YEV6_HUMAN
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-re...
LRP8
240Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
E9PKG2E9PKG2_HUMAN
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-re...
LRP8
392Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
E9PP15E9PP15_HUMAN
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-re...
LRP8
457Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
H0YCA4H0YCA4_HUMAN
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-re...
LRP8
121Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
H0YEA5H0YEA5_HUMAN
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-re...
LRP8
135Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence CAA99509 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at positions 430, 432 and 438.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti262A → V in BAA09328 (PubMed:8626535).Curated1
Sequence conflicti262A → V in BAA21824 (PubMed:9079678).Curated1
Sequence conflicti405Y → C in CAA99509 (PubMed:11152697).Curated1
Sequence conflicti418A → G in BAA09328 (PubMed:8626535).Curated1
Sequence conflicti418A → G in BAA21824 (PubMed:9079678).Curated1
Sequence conflicti418A → G in BAA21825 (PubMed:9079678).Curated1
Sequence conflicti430H → Y in BAA09328 (PubMed:8626535).Curated1
Sequence conflicti430H → Y in BAA21824 (PubMed:9079678).Curated1
Sequence conflicti430H → Y in BAA21825 (PubMed:9079678).Curated1
Sequence conflicti430H → Y in CAA99509 (PubMed:11152697).Curated1
Sequence conflicti488Q → R in CAA99509 (PubMed:11152697).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_04697425Q → R4 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs4926972Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_01846846D → E5 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs3820198Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_037624453V → M. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs5180Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_037625466W → C. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs5181Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_037626607Q → R. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs5172Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_037627611I → L. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs5170Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_037628653S → T. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs5171Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_059079736R → Q. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs5172Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_018469952R → Q Associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction type 1; increases activation of MAPK14 by oxidized low density lipoprotein. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs5174EnsemblClinVar.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting. The information stored in this subsection is used to automatically construct alternative protein sequence(s) for display.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_010305166 – 295LCAPH…EADCP → S in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST130
Alternative sequenceiVSP_038181166L → W in isoform 4. Curated1
Alternative sequenceiVSP_010306167 – 336Missing in isoform 4. CuratedAdd BLAST170
Alternative sequenceiVSP_010307737 – 812APQST…HSQHY → D in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST76
Alternative sequenceiVSP_010308893 – 951Missing in isoform 2 and isoform 3. 2 PublicationsAdd BLAST59

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
D50678 mRNA Translation: BAA09328.1
D86407 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA21824.1
D86407 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA21825.1
Z75190 mRNA Translation: CAA99509.1 Frameshift.
AL355483 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AL606760 Genomic DNA No translation available.
BC006443 mRNA Translation: AAH06443.1
BC051836 mRNA Translation: AAH51836.2

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

More...
CCDSi
CCDS30720.1 [Q14114-3]
CCDS578.1 [Q14114-1]
CCDS579.1 [Q14114-2]
CCDS580.1 [Q14114-4]

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001018064.1, NM_001018054.2 [Q14114-3]
NP_004622.2, NM_004631.4 [Q14114-1]
NP_059992.3, NM_017522.4 [Q14114-2]
NP_150643.2, NM_033300.3 [Q14114-4]

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

More...
UniGenei
Hs.280387

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENST00000306052; ENSP00000303634; ENSG00000157193 [Q14114-1]
ENST00000347547; ENSP00000334522; ENSG00000157193 [Q14114-4]
ENST00000354412; ENSP00000346391; ENSG00000157193 [Q14114-2]
ENST00000371454; ENSP00000360509; ENSG00000157193 [Q14114-3]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
7804

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
hsa:7804

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
uc001cvi.4 human [Q14114-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D50678 mRNA Translation: BAA09328.1
D86407 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA21824.1
D86407 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA21825.1
Z75190 mRNA Translation: CAA99509.1 Frameshift.
AL355483 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AL606760 Genomic DNA No translation available.
BC006443 mRNA Translation: AAH06443.1
BC051836 mRNA Translation: AAH51836.2
CCDSiCCDS30720.1 [Q14114-3]
CCDS578.1 [Q14114-1]
CCDS579.1 [Q14114-2]
CCDS580.1 [Q14114-4]
RefSeqiNP_001018064.1, NM_001018054.2 [Q14114-3]
NP_004622.2, NM_004631.4 [Q14114-1]
NP_059992.3, NM_017522.4 [Q14114-2]
NP_150643.2, NM_033300.3 [Q14114-4]
UniGeneiHs.280387

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3A7QX-ray2.60B42-83[»]
5B4XX-ray3.20B/D42-736[»]
5B4YX-ray1.90B42-124[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ14114
SMRiQ14114
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi113579, 38 interactors
DIPiDIP-48670N
ELMiQ14114
IntActiQ14114, 22 interactors
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000303634

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ14114
PhosphoSitePlusiQ14114
SwissPalmiQ14114

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiLRP8
DMDMi259016389

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ14114
PaxDbiQ14114
PeptideAtlasiQ14114
PRIDEiQ14114
ProteomicsDBi59819
59820 [Q14114-2]
59821 [Q14114-3]
59822 [Q14114-4]

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000306052; ENSP00000303634; ENSG00000157193 [Q14114-1]
ENST00000347547; ENSP00000334522; ENSG00000157193 [Q14114-4]
ENST00000354412; ENSP00000346391; ENSG00000157193 [Q14114-2]
ENST00000371454; ENSP00000360509; ENSG00000157193 [Q14114-3]
GeneIDi7804
KEGGihsa:7804
UCSCiuc001cvi.4 human [Q14114-1]

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
7804
DisGeNETi7804
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000157193.14

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

More...
GeneCardsi
LRP8
HGNCiHGNC:6700 LRP8
HPAiHPA073031
MalaCardsiLRP8
MIMi602600 gene
608446 phenotype
neXtProtiNX_Q14114
OpenTargetsiENSG00000157193
PharmGKBiPA30457

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IPT5 Eukaryota
ENOG410YQ6J LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00940000154819
HOVERGENiHBG006250
InParanoidiQ14114
KOiK20052
OMAiGEKDCES
OrthoDBiEOG091G01MX
PhylomeDBiQ14114
TreeFamiTF351700

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-432142 Platelet sensitization by LDL
R-HSA-975634 Retinoid metabolism and transport
SIGNORiQ14114

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

More...
ChiTaRSi
LRP8 human
EvolutionaryTraceiQ14114

The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

More...
GeneWikii
Low_density_lipoprotein_receptor-related_protein_8

Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

More...
GenomeRNAii
7804

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q14114

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

More...
SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000157193 Expressed in 200 organ(s), highest expression level in pigmented layer of retina
CleanExiHS_LRP8
ExpressionAtlasiQ14114 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ14114 HS

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00112 LDLa, 6 hits
Gene3Di2.120.10.30, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR011042 6-blade_b-propeller_TolB-like
IPR001881 EGF-like_Ca-bd_dom
IPR013032 EGF-like_CS
IPR000742 EGF-like_dom
IPR000152 EGF-type_Asp/Asn_hydroxyl_site
IPR018097 EGF_Ca-bd_CS
IPR036055 LDL_receptor-like_sf
IPR023415 LDLR_class-A_CS
IPR000033 LDLR_classB_rpt
IPR002172 LDrepeatLR_classA_rpt
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00057 Ldl_recept_a, 7 hits
PF00058 Ldl_recept_b, 5 hits
PRINTSiPR00261 LDLRECEPTOR
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00181 EGF, 4 hits
SM00179 EGF_CA, 2 hits
SM00192 LDLa, 7 hits
SM00135 LY, 5 hits
SUPFAMiSSF57424 SSF57424, 7 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00010 ASX_HYDROXYL, 2 hits
PS01186 EGF_2, 2 hits
PS50026 EGF_3, 2 hits
PS01187 EGF_CA, 1 hit
PS01209 LDLRA_1, 7 hits
PS50068 LDLRA_2, 7 hits
PS51120 LDLRB, 5 hits

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiLRP8_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q14114
Secondary accession number(s): B1AMT6
, B1AMT7, B1AMT8, O14968, Q86V27, Q99876, Q9BR78
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 10, 2004
Last sequence update: September 22, 2009
Last modified: December 5, 2018
This is version 183 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 1
    Human chromosome 1: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  5. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  6. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
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