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Entry version 74 (18 Sep 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Nov 1996)
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Protein

Norsolorinic acid reductase A

Gene

aflE

Organism
Aspergillus parasiticus (strain ATCC 56775 / NRRL 5862 / SRRC 143 / SU-1)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:3 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Norsolorinic acid reductase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of aflatoxins, a group of polyketide-derived furanocoumarins, and part of the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds among the known mycotoxins (PubMed:8593042, PubMed:15006741). The four major aflatoxins produced by A.parasiticus are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) (PubMed:15006741). The first step of the pathway is the conversion of acetate to norsolorinic acid (NOR) and requires the fatty acid synthase subunits aflA and aflB, as well as the PKS aflC (PubMed:15006741). AflC combines a hexanoyl starter unit and 7 malonyl-CoA extender units to synthesize the precursor NOR (PubMed:18403714). The hexanoyl starter unit is provided to the acyl-carrier protein (ACP) domain by the fungal fatty acid synthase aflA/aflB (PubMed:16256699). The second step is the conversion of NOR to averantin (AVN) and requires the norsolorinic acid ketoreductase aflD, which catalyzes the dehydration of norsolorinic acid to form (1'S)-averantin (PubMed:10584035). The norsolorinic acid reductases aflE and aflF may also play a role in the conversion of NOR to AVN (PubMed:8593042, PubMed:15006741). The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase aflG then catalyzes the hydroxylation of AVN to 5'hydroxyaverantin (HAVN) (PubMed:8368836). The next step is performed by the 5'-hydroxyaverantin dehydrogenase aflH that transforms HAVN to 5'-oxoaverantin (OAVN) which is further converted to averufin (AVF) by aflK that plays a dual role in the pathway, as a 5'-oxoaverantin cyclase that mediates conversion of 5'-oxoaverantin, as well as a versicolorin B synthase in a later step in the pathway (PubMed:15006741, PubMed:11055914, PubMed:15932995). The averufin oxidase aflI catalyzes the conversion of AVF to versiconal hemiacetal acetate (VHA) (PubMed:15006741). VHA is then the substrate for the versiconal hemiacetal acetate esterase aflJ to yield versiconal (VAL) (PubMed:15006741). Versicolorin B synthase aflK then converts VAL to versicolorin B (VERB) by closing the bisfuran ring of aflatoxin which is required for DNA-binding, thus giving to aflatoxin its activity as a mutagen (PubMed:15006741, PubMed:8368837, PubMed:15932995). Then, the activity of the versicolorin B desaturase aflL leads to versicolorin A (VERA) (PubMed:15006741, PubMed:8368837). A branch point starts from VERB since it can also be converted to dihydrodemethylsterigmatocystin (DMDHST), probably also by aflL, VERA being a precursor for aflatoxins B1 and G1, and DMDHST for aflatoxins B2 and G2 (PubMed:15006741). Next, the versicolorin reductase aflM and the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase aflN are involved in conversion of VERA to demethylsterigmatocystin (DMST) (PubMed:15006741, PubMed:1339261, PubMed:15771506). AflX and aflY seem also involved in this step, through probable aflX-mediated epoxide ring-opening step following versicolorin A oxidation and aflY-mediated Baeyer-Villiger oxidation required for the formation of the xanthone ring (PubMed:16332900, PubMed:16461654). The methyltransferase aflO then leads to the modification of DMST to sterigmatocystin (ST), and of DMDHST to dihydrosterigmatocystin (DHST) (PubMed:10543813). Both ST and DHST are then substrates of the O-methyltransferase aflP to yield O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin (DHOMST), respectively (PubMed:8434913). Finally OMST is converted to aflatoxins B1 and G1, and DHOMST to aflatoxins B2 and G2, via the action of several enzymes including O-methylsterigmatocystin oxidoreductase aflQ, the cytodhrome P450 monooxygenase aflU, but also the NADH-dependent flavin oxidoreductase nadA which is specifically required for the synthesis of AFG1 (PubMed:15006741, PubMed:11996570, PubMed:15528514, PubMed:18486503).1 Publication17 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: aflatoxin biosynthesis

This protein is involved in the pathway aflatoxin biosynthesis, which is part of Mycotoxin biosynthesis.1 Publication1 Publication
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway aflatoxin biosynthesis and in Mycotoxin biosynthesis.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei69NADPBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei74Proton donorBy similarity1
Binding sitei148SubstrateBy similarity1
Binding sitei204NADPBy similarity1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi178 – 179NADPBy similarity2
Nucleotide bindingi233 – 243NADPBy similarityAdd BLAST11
Nucleotide bindingi300 – 308NADPBy similarity9

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
LigandNADP

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00287

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Norsolorinic acid reductase A1 Publication (EC:1.1.1.-1 Publication)
Alternative name(s):
Aflatoxin biosynthesis protein E1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:aflE1 Publication
Synonyms:norA1 Publication
ORF Names:P875_00052990
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiAspergillus parasiticus (strain ATCC 56775 / NRRL 5862 / SRRC 143 / SU-1)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri1403190 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaPezizomycotinaEurotiomycetesEurotiomycetidaeEurotialesAspergillaceaeAspergillus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000033540 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unassembled WGS sequence

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00000703841 – 388Norsolorinic acid reductase AAdd BLAST388

Proteomic databases

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
Q00258

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Natural plant compounds carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) strongly reduce the expression (PubMed:26217023).1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
Q00258

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd06660 Aldo_ket_red, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
3.20.20.100, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR023210 NADP_OxRdtase_dom
IPR036812 NADP_OxRdtase_dom_sf

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00248 Aldo_ket_red, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51430 SSF51430, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q00258-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MVLPTAPEPP TLLGYHRILS PSAGVRVSPL CLGTMSFGNG WKGVMGECDQ
60 70 80 90 100
ATSFNMLDTF YESGGNFIDV ANFYQGGDTE RWVGEWMAQR QNRDEIVLST
110 120 130 140 150
KYTMGYTMFG PQKIKSNFQG NHAKSLRLSV KASLQKLQTD YIDLLYVHMW
160 170 180 190 200
DFTTSVEEVM RSLNHLVANG KVLYLGVSDT PAWLVVKCNA FARANGLTPF
210 220 230 240 250
SVYQGHWSSA FRDFERDILP MCESEGMGLA PWGVLGRGQF RSAEEFSREG
260 270 280 290 300
RKMGPQDEKH RRLGEKLDQM AQQKNTKATS IAQAYVMHKA PYVFPVIGGR
310 320 330 340 350
KVEHLKENIE ALGLVLSEEE IREIDDAEPF DVGFPMNFLF ETPTQSYRTN
360 370 380
MTSKDIWQLS CNTRLETVPK QQPIEPLQGA KYFGSASK
Length:388
Mass (Da):43,721
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i8829491E66EF66BB
GO

<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence KJK60773 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti36S → T in KJK60773 (Ref. 3) Curated1
Sequence conflicti209S → C in KJK60773 (Ref. 3) Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
U24698 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC49166.1
AY371490 Genomic DNA Translation: AAS66006.1
JZEE01000729 Genomic DNA Translation: KJK60773.1 Sequence problems.

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl fungal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblFungii
KJK60773; KJK60773; P875_00052990

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U24698 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC49166.1
AY371490 Genomic DNA Translation: AAS66006.1
JZEE01000729 Genomic DNA Translation: KJK60773.1 Sequence problems.

3D structure databases

SMRiQ00258
ModBaseiSearch...

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiQ00258

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiKJK60773; KJK60773; P875_00052990

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00287

Family and domain databases

CDDicd06660 Aldo_ket_red, 1 hit
Gene3Di3.20.20.100, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR023210 NADP_OxRdtase_dom
IPR036812 NADP_OxRdtase_dom_sf
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00248 Aldo_ket_red, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF51430 SSF51430, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiAFLE_ASPPU
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q00258
Secondary accession number(s): A0A0F0I463, Q6UEG4
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 15, 1999
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: September 18, 2019
This is version 74 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
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