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Entry version 145 (10 Feb 2021)
Sequence version 2 (11 Jul 2001)
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Protein

Gamma-glutamylputrescine synthetase PuuA

Gene

puuA

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via the biosynthesis of gamma-L-glutamylputrescine. It is able to use several diamines, spermidine and spermine. Absolutely essential to utilize putrescine as both nitrogen and carbon sources and to decrease the toxicity of putrescine, which can lead to inhibition of cell growth and protein synthesis.2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=2.07 mM for glutamate (at pH 8 and at 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  2. KM=2.25 mM for ATP (at pH 8 and at 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  3. KM=44.6 mM for putrescine (at pH 8 and at 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  1. Vmax=6.71 µmol/min/mg enzyme (at pH 8 and at 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 9.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: putrescine degradation

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes 4-aminobutanoate from putrescine.
Proteins known to be involved in the 4 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Gamma-glutamylputrescine synthetase PuuA (puuA)
  2. Gamma-glutamylputrescine oxidoreductase (puuB)
  3. NADP/NAD-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase PuuC (puuC)
  4. Gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyrate hydrolase PuuD (puuD)
This subpathway is part of the pathway putrescine degradation, which is itself part of Amine and polyamine degradation.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes 4-aminobutanoate from putrescine, the pathway putrescine degradation and in Amine and polyamine degradation.

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionLigase
LigandATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
EcoCyc:G6644-MONOMER
MetaCyc:G6644-MONOMER

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

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UniPathwayi
UPA00188;UER00880

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Gamma-glutamylputrescine synthetase PuuA (EC:6.3.1.11)
Short name:
Gamma-Glu-Put synthetase
Alternative name(s):
Glutamate--putrescine ligase
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:puuA
Synonyms:ycjK
Ordered Locus Names:b1297, JW5201
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000318 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome
  • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology%5Fand%5Fbiotech%5Fsection">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi282H → N: Activity is impaired to 9% of wild-type. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi357R → Q: Activity is impaired to 3% of wild-type. 1 Publication1

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001532801 – 472Gamma-glutamylputrescine synthetase PuuAAdd BLAST472

Proteomic databases

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

More...
jPOSTi
P78061

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P78061

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P78061

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Induced by putrescine and repressed by PuuR. Transiently induced by cold shock.2 Publications

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Dodecamer.

1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

More...
BioGRIDi
4260944, 13 interactors

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
511145.b1297

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P78061

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glutamine synthetase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
COG0174, Bacteria

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_017290_0_0_6

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P78061

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P78061

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR036651, Gln_synt_N
IPR014746, Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom
IPR008146, Gln_synth_cat_dom
IPR027303, Gln_synth_gly_rich_site

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00120, Gln-synt_C, 1 hit

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM01230, Gln-synt_C, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF54368, SSF54368, 1 hit
SSF55931, SSF55931, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00181, GLNA_ATP, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P78061-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
METNIVEVEN FVQQSEERRG SAFTQEVKRY LERYPNTQYV DVLLTDLNGC
60 70 80 90 100
FRGKRIPVSS LKKLEKGCYF PASVFAMDIL GNVVEEAGLG QEMGEPDRTC
110 120 130 140 150
VPVLGSLTPS AADPEFIGQM LLTMVDEDGA PFDVEPRNVL NRLWQQLRQR
160 170 180 190 200
GLFPVVAVEL EFYLLDRQRD AEGYLQPPCA PGTDDRNTQS QVYSVDNLNH
210 220 230 240 250
FADVLNDIDE LAQLQLIPAD GAVAEASPGQ FEINLYHTDN VLEACDDALA
260 270 280 290 300
LKRLVRLMAE KHKMHATFMA KPYEEHAGSG MHIHISMQNN RGENVLSDAE
310 320 330 340 350
GEDSPLLKKM LAGMIDLMPS SMALLAPNVN SYRRFQPGMY VPTQASWGHN
360 370 380 390 400
NRTVALRIPC GDRHNHRVEY RVAGADANPY LVMAAIFAGI LHGLDNELPL
410 420 430 440 450
QEEVEGNGLE QEGLPFPIRQ SDALGEFIEN DHLRRYLGER FCHVYHACKN
460 470
DELLQFERLI TETEIEWMLK NA
Length:472
Mass (Da):53,177
Last modified:July 11, 2001 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i9D2224C5A9FCC0A3
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC74379.2
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA14857.2

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
D64878

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_415813.4, NC_000913.3
WP_001296746.1, NZ_STEB01000005.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblBacteriai
AAC74379; AAC74379; b1297
BAA14857; BAA14857; BAA14857

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
57732067
946202

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ecj:JW5201
eco:b1297

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|511145.12.peg.1352

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC74379.2
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA14857.2
PIRiD64878
RefSeqiNP_415813.4, NC_000913.3
WP_001296746.1, NZ_STEB01000005.1

3D structure databases

SMRiP78061
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi4260944, 13 interactors
STRINGi511145.b1297

Proteomic databases

jPOSTiP78061
PaxDbiP78061
PRIDEiP78061

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC74379; AAC74379; b1297
BAA14857; BAA14857; BAA14857
GeneIDi57732067
946202
KEGGiecj:JW5201
eco:b1297
PATRICifig|511145.12.peg.1352

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASE - an integrated post-genomic database for E. coli

More...
EchoBASEi
EB3667

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0174, Bacteria
HOGENOMiCLU_017290_0_0_6
InParanoidiP78061
PhylomeDBiP78061

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00188;UER00880
BioCyciEcoCyc:G6644-MONOMER
MetaCyc:G6644-MONOMER

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P78061

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR036651, Gln_synt_N
IPR014746, Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom
IPR008146, Gln_synth_cat_dom
IPR027303, Gln_synth_gly_rich_site
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00120, Gln-synt_C, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM01230, Gln-synt_C, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF54368, SSF54368, 1 hit
SSF55931, SSF55931, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00181, GLNA_ATP, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiPUUA_ECOLI
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P78061
Secondary accession number(s): P78287
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 15, 1998
Last sequence update: July 11, 2001
Last modified: February 10, 2021
This is version 145 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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