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Protein

Glutamate decarboxylase beta

Gene

gadB

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria.

Miscellaneous

Changing Lys-276 to Ala increases thermal stability and protease resistance. The unfolding temperature is increased by 11 degrees Celsius.

Catalytic activityi

L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO2.

Cofactori

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Binding sitei62Substrate1
Binding sitei83Substrate1
Binding sitei212Pyridoxal phosphate1
Binding sitei275Pyridoxal phosphate1

GO - Molecular functioni

  • glutamate decarboxylase activity Source: EcoCyc
  • pyridoxal phosphate binding Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

  • glutamate catabolic process Source: GO_Central
  • intracellular pH elevation Source: EcoCyc

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDecarboxylase, Lyase
LigandPyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciEcoCyc:GLUTDECARBOXB-MONOMER
MetaCyc:GLUTDECARBOXB-MONOMER
BRENDAi4.1.1.15 2026

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glutamate decarboxylase beta (EC:4.1.1.15)
Short name:
GAD-beta
Gene namesi
Name:gadB
Ordered Locus Names:b1493, JW1488
OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
Proteomesi
  • UP000000318 Componenti: Chromosome
  • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

Organism-specific databases

EcoGeneiEG11490 gadB

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi276K → A: Strongly reduces pyridoxal phosphate binding and increases stability of the polypeptide. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi276K → H: Abolishes pyridoxal phosphate binding. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00001469821 – 466Glutamate decarboxylase betaAdd BLAST466

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei276N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysine1
Modified residuei446N6-acetyllysine1 Publication1
Modified residuei453N6-acetyllysine1 Publication1
Modified residuei464N6-acetyllysine1 Publication1

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP69910
PRIDEiP69910

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP69910

Expressioni

Inductioni

By acidic conditions. Expression is regulated by a complex system involving RpoS, cAMP, CRP, EvgAS, H-NS, GadE, GadW and GadX. The level of involvement for each regulator varies depending upon the growth phase and the medium.7 Publications

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homohexamer composed of three dimers.1 Publication

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
yadGP368792EBI-549514,EBI-550911

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi4260788, 5 interactors
DIPiDIP-36202N
IntActiP69910, 16 interactors
MINTiP69910
STRINGi316385.ECDH10B_1624

Structurei

Secondary structure

1466
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP69910
SMRiP69910
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP69910

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni126 – 127Pyridoxal phosphate binding2

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the group II decarboxylase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG4105CVK Bacteria
COG0076 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000070228
InParanoidiP69910
KOiK01580
PhylomeDBiP69910

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.640.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR010107 Glutamate_decarboxylase
IPR002129 PyrdxlP-dep_de-COase
IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase
IPR015421 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major
IPR021115 Pyridoxal-P_BS
PANTHERiPTHR43321 PTHR43321, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00282 Pyridoxal_deC, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF53383 SSF53383, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01788 Glu-decarb-GAD, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00392 DDC_GAD_HDC_YDC, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P69910-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MDKKQVTDLR SELLDSRFGA KSISTIAESK RFPLHEMRDD VAFQIINDEL
60 70 80 90 100
YLDGNARQNL ATFCQTWDDE NVHKLMDLSI NKNWIDKEEY PQSAAIDLRC
110 120 130 140 150
VNMVADLWHA PAPKNGQAVG TNTIGSSEAC MLGGMAMKWR WRKRMEAAGK
160 170 180 190 200
PTDKPNLVCG PVQICWHKFA RYWDVELREI PMRPGQLFMD PKRMIEACDE
210 220 230 240 250
NTIGVVPTFG VTYTGNYEFP QPLHDALDKF QADTGIDIDM HIDAASGGFL
260 270 280 290 300
APFVAPDIVW DFRLPRVKSI SASGHKFGLA PLGCGWVIWR DEEALPQELV
310 320 330 340 350
FNVDYLGGQI GTFAINFSRP AGQVIAQYYE FLRLGREGYT KVQNASYQVA
360 370 380 390 400
AYLADEIAKL GPYEFICTGR PDEGIPAVCF KLKDGEDPGY TLYDLSERLR
410 420 430 440 450
LRGWQVPAFT LGGEATDIVV MRIMCRRGFE MDFAELLLED YKASLKYLSD
460
HPKLQGIAQQ NSFKHT
Length:466
Mass (Da):52,668
Last modified:January 4, 2005 - v1
Checksum:i8E653330A3C5B4ED
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M84025 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23834.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC74566.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA15163.1
X71917 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA50736.1 Sequence problems.
PIRiB43332
RefSeqiNP_416010.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000358930.1, NZ_LN832404.1

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC74566; AAC74566; b1493
BAA15163; BAA15163; BAA15163
GeneIDi946058
KEGGiecj:JW1488
eco:b1493
PATRICifig|1411691.4.peg.774

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M84025 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23834.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC74566.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA15163.1
X71917 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA50736.1 Sequence problems.
PIRiB43332
RefSeqiNP_416010.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000358930.1, NZ_LN832404.1

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1PMMX-ray2.00A/B/C/D/E/F1-466[»]
1PMOX-ray2.30A/B/C/D/E/F1-466[»]
2DGKX-ray1.90A/B/C/D/E/F15-466[»]
2DGLX-ray3.15A/B/C/D/E/F1-466[»]
2DGMX-ray1.95A/B/C/D/E/F1-466[»]
3FZ6X-ray2.82A/B/C/D/E/F1-466[»]
3FZ7X-ray2.50A/B/C/D/E/F1-466[»]
3FZ8X-ray3.00A/B/C/D/E/F1-466[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP69910
SMRiP69910
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi4260788, 5 interactors
DIPiDIP-36202N
IntActiP69910, 16 interactors
MINTiP69910
STRINGi316385.ECDH10B_1624

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP69910

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP69910
PRIDEiP69910

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC74566; AAC74566; b1493
BAA15163; BAA15163; BAA15163
GeneIDi946058
KEGGiecj:JW1488
eco:b1493
PATRICifig|1411691.4.peg.774

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASEiEB1453
EcoGeneiEG11490 gadB

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG4105CVK Bacteria
COG0076 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000070228
InParanoidiP69910
KOiK01580
PhylomeDBiP69910

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciEcoCyc:GLUTDECARBOXB-MONOMER
MetaCyc:GLUTDECARBOXB-MONOMER
BRENDAi4.1.1.15 2026

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP69910
PROiPR:P69910

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.640.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR010107 Glutamate_decarboxylase
IPR002129 PyrdxlP-dep_de-COase
IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase
IPR015421 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major
IPR021115 Pyridoxal-P_BS
PANTHERiPTHR43321 PTHR43321, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00282 Pyridoxal_deC, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF53383 SSF53383, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01788 Glu-decarb-GAD, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00392 DDC_GAD_HDC_YDC, 1 hit
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiDCEB_ECOLI
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P69910
Secondary accession number(s): P28302, P76873
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 4, 2005
Last sequence update: January 4, 2005
Last modified: November 7, 2018
This is version 116 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. Escherichia coli
    Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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