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Protein

Glutamate decarboxylase alpha

Gene

gadA

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei62SubstrateBy similarity1
Binding sitei83SubstrateBy similarity1
Binding sitei212Pyridoxal phosphateBy similarity1
Binding sitei275Pyridoxal phosphateBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • glutamate decarboxylase activity Source: EcoCyc
  • pyridoxal phosphate binding Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

  • glutamate catabolic process Source: GO_Central
  • intracellular pH elevation Source: EcoCyc

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionDecarboxylase, Lyase
LigandPyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
EcoCyc:GLUTDECARBOXA-MONOMER
MetaCyc:GLUTDECARBOXA-MONOMER

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glutamate decarboxylase alpha (EC:4.1.1.15)
Short name:
GAD-alpha
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:gadA
Synonyms:gadS
Ordered Locus Names:b3517, JW3485
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000318 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome
  • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

Organism-specific databases

Escherichia coli strain K12 genome database

More...
EcoGenei
EG50009 gadA

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Chemistry databases

Drug and drug target database

More...
DrugBanki
DB03553 Glutaric Acid

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001469781 – 466Glutamate decarboxylase alphaAdd BLAST466

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei276N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysine1

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P69908

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P69908

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

By acidic conditions. Expression is regulated by a complex system involving RpoS, cAMP, CRP, EvgAS, H-NS, GadE, GadW and GadX. The level of involvement for each regulator varies depending upon the growth phase and the medium.7 Publications

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homohexamer.

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

More...
BioGridi
4261597, 2 interactors

Database of interacting proteins

More...
DIPi
DIP-36201N

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P69908, 15 interactors

Molecular INTeraction database

More...
MINTi
P69908

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
316385.ECDH10B_3694

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1466
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

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ProteinModelPortali
P69908

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P69908

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

More...
EvolutionaryTracei
P69908

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni126 – 127Pyridoxal phosphate bindingBy similarity2

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the group II decarboxylase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG4105CVK Bacteria
COG0076 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000070228

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P69908

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K01580

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P69908

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
3.40.640.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR010107 Glutamate_decarboxylase
IPR002129 PyrdxlP-dep_de-COase
IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase
IPR015421 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major
IPR021115 Pyridoxal-P_BS

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR43321 PTHR43321, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00282 Pyridoxal_deC, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF53383 SSF53383, 1 hit

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR01788 Glu-decarb-GAD, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00392 DDC_GAD_HDC_YDC, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P69908-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MDQKLLTDFR SELLDSRFGA KAISTIAESK RFPLHEMRDD VAFQIINDEL
60 70 80 90 100
YLDGNARQNL ATFCQTWDDE NVHKLMDLSI NKNWIDKEEY PQSAAIDLRC
110 120 130 140 150
VNMVADLWHA PAPKNGQAVG TNTIGSSEAC MLGGMAMKWR WRKRMEAAGK
160 170 180 190 200
PTDKPNLVCG PVQICWHKFA RYWDVELREI PMRPGQLFMD PKRMIEACDE
210 220 230 240 250
NTIGVVPTFG VTYTGNYEFP QPLHDALDKF QADTGIDIDM HIDAASGGFL
260 270 280 290 300
APFVAPDIVW DFRLPRVKSI SASGHKFGLA PLGCGWVIWR DEEALPQELV
310 320 330 340 350
FNVDYLGGQI GTFAINFSRP AGQVIAQYYE FLRLGREGYT KVQNASYQVA
360 370 380 390 400
AYLADEIAKL GPYEFICTGR PDEGIPAVCF KLKDGEDPGY TLYDLSERLR
410 420 430 440 450
LRGWQVPAFT LGGEATDIVV MRIMCRRGFE MDFAELLLED YKASLKYLSD
460
HPKLQGIAQQ NSFKHT
Length:466
Mass (Da):52,685
Last modified:January 4, 2005 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i86F963E710553E22
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti64C → S AA sequence (PubMed:1740158).Curated1
Sequence conflicti73H → R AA sequence (PubMed:1740158).Curated1
Sequence conflicti153D → N AA sequence (PubMed:1740158).Curated1
Sequence conflicti165C → S in CAA44834 (PubMed:1740158).Curated1
Sequence conflicti208T → N in CAA44834 (PubMed:1740158).Curated1
Sequence conflicti295L → V in CAA44834 (PubMed:1740158).Curated1
Sequence conflicti355D → N AA sequence (PubMed:1740158).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
M84024 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23833.1
X63123 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA44834.1
U00039 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB18493.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC76542.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE77777.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
S47737 S24234

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_417974.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000372240.1, NZ_LN832404.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblBacteriai
AAC76542; AAC76542; b3517
BAE77777; BAE77777; BAE77777

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
948027

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ecj:JW3485
eco:b3517

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|511145.12.peg.3626

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross_references_section">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

Worthington enzyme manual

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M84024 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23833.1
X63123 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA44834.1
U00039 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB18493.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC76542.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE77777.1
PIRiS47737 S24234
RefSeqiNP_417974.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000372240.1, NZ_LN832404.1

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1XEYX-ray2.05A/B1-466[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP69908
SMRiP69908
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi4261597, 2 interactors
DIPiDIP-36201N
IntActiP69908, 15 interactors
MINTiP69908
STRINGi316385.ECDH10B_3694

Chemistry databases

DrugBankiDB03553 Glutaric Acid

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP69908
PRIDEiP69908

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC76542; AAC76542; b3517
BAE77777; BAE77777; BAE77777
GeneIDi948027
KEGGiecj:JW3485
eco:b3517
PATRICifig|511145.12.peg.3626

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASE - an integrated post-genomic database for E. coli

More...
EchoBASEi
EB4302
EcoGeneiEG50009 gadA

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG4105CVK Bacteria
COG0076 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000070228
InParanoidiP69908
KOiK01580
PhylomeDBiP69908

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciEcoCyc:GLUTDECARBOXA-MONOMER
MetaCyc:GLUTDECARBOXA-MONOMER

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP69908

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P69908

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.640.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR010107 Glutamate_decarboxylase
IPR002129 PyrdxlP-dep_de-COase
IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase
IPR015421 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major
IPR021115 Pyridoxal-P_BS
PANTHERiPTHR43321 PTHR43321, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00282 Pyridoxal_deC, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF53383 SSF53383, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01788 Glu-decarb-GAD, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00392 DDC_GAD_HDC_YDC, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiDCEA_ECOLI
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P69908
Secondary accession number(s): P80063, Q2M7H9
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 4, 2005
Last sequence update: January 4, 2005
Last modified: December 5, 2018
This is version 110 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. Escherichia coli
    Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
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