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Entry version 102 (02 Dec 2020)
Sequence version 2 (04 Feb 2015)
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Protein

Protein Vpr

Gene

vpr

Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2) (HIV-1)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

During virus entry, plays a role in the transport of the viral pre-integration (PIC) complex to the host nucleus. This function is crucial for viral infection of non-dividing macrophages. May act directly at the nuclear pore complex, by binding nucleoporins phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat regions.UniRule annotation3 Publications
During virus replication, may deplete host UNG protein, and incude G2-M cell cycle arrest. Acts by targeting specific host proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, through association with the cellular CUL4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex by direct interaction with host VPRPB/DCAF-1. Cell cycle arrest reportedly occurs within hours of infection and is not blocked by antiviral agents, suggesting that it is initiated by the VPR carried into the virion. Additionally, VPR induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent manner suggesting that these two effects are mechanistically linked. Detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient, VPR may also induce cell death to bystander cells.UniRule annotation8 Publications

Miscellaneous

HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).UniRule annotation

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionActivator, Ion channel
Biological processApoptosis, Cell cycle, Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virus, Host-virus interaction, Ion transport, Modulation of host cell cycle by virus, Transcription, Transcription regulation, Transport, Viral penetration into host nucleus, Virus entry into host cell

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-HSA-162585, Uncoating of the HIV Virion
R-HSA-162588, Budding and maturation of HIV virion
R-HSA-162592, Integration of provirus
R-HSA-162594, Early Phase of HIV Life Cycle
R-HSA-164516, Minus-strand DNA synthesis
R-HSA-164525, Plus-strand DNA synthesis
R-HSA-164843, 2-LTR circle formation
R-HSA-173107, Binding and entry of HIV virion
R-HSA-175474, Assembly Of The HIV Virion
R-HSA-175567, Integration of viral DNA into host genomic DNA
R-HSA-177539, Autointegration results in viral DNA circles
R-HSA-180689, APOBEC3G mediated resistance to HIV-1 infection
R-HSA-180897, Vpr-mediated induction of apoptosis by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization
R-HSA-180910, Vpr-mediated nuclear import of PICs

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein VprUniRule annotation
Alternative name(s):
R ORF proteinUniRule annotation
Viral protein RUniRule annotation
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:vprUniRule annotation
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2) (HIV-1)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri11706 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRiboviriaPararnaviraeArtverviricotaRevtraviricetesOrterviralesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section only exists in viral entries and indicates the host(s) either as a specific organism or taxonomic group of organisms that are susceptible to be infected by a virus.<p><a href='/help/virus_host' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000002241 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Genome

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host nucleus, Virion

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei

AIDS

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00000854511 – 96Protein VprAdd BLAST96

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei79Phosphoserine; by hostUniRule annotation2 Publications1
Modified residuei94Phosphoserine; by hostUniRule annotation1 Publication1
Modified residuei96Phosphoserine; by hostUniRule annotation1 Publication1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated on several residues by host. These phosphorylations regulate VPR activity for the nuclear import of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex.UniRule annotation2 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P69726

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
P69726

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homooligomer, may form homodimer.

Interacts with p6-gag region of the Pr55 Gag precursor protein through a (Leu-X-X)4 motif near the C-terminus of the P6gag protein.

Interacts with host UNG. May interact with host RAD23A/HHR23A.

Interacts with host VPRBP/DCAF1, leading to hijack the CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-DCAF1/VPRBP complex, mediating ubiquitination of host proteins such as TERT and ZGPAT and arrest of the cell cycle in G2 phase.

UniRule annotation7 Publications

Protein-protein interaction databases

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P69726, 4 interactors

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P69726

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

More...
PDBe-KBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni1 – 42HomooligomerizationUniRule annotation1 PublicationAdd BLAST42

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HIV-1 VPR protein family.UniRule annotation

Family and domain databases

HAMAP database of protein families

More...
HAMAPi
MF_04080, HIV_VPR, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR000012, RetroV_VpR/X

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00522, VPR, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00444, HIVVPRVPX

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P69726-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MEQAPEDQGP QREPHNEWTL ELLEELKNEA VRHFPRIWLH GLGQHIYETY
60 70 80 90
GDTWAGVEAI IRILQQLLFI HFRIGCRHSR IGVTRQRRAR NGASRS
Length:96
Mass (Da):11,323
Last modified:February 4, 2015 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i42892A4249E83D3E
GO

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAB50261 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift.Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

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DDBJi
Links Updated
K03455 Genomic RNA Translation: AAB50261.1 Frameshift.

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross%5Freferences%5Fsection">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

BioAfrica HIV proteomics resource

Vpr entry

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
K03455 Genomic RNA Translation: AAB50261.1 Frameshift.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
4U1SX-ray1.76C34-42[»]
SMRiP69726
ModBaseiSearch...
PDBe-KBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiP69726, 4 interactors

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP69726

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP69726

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-162585, Uncoating of the HIV Virion
R-HSA-162588, Budding and maturation of HIV virion
R-HSA-162592, Integration of provirus
R-HSA-162594, Early Phase of HIV Life Cycle
R-HSA-164516, Minus-strand DNA synthesis
R-HSA-164525, Plus-strand DNA synthesis
R-HSA-164843, 2-LTR circle formation
R-HSA-173107, Binding and entry of HIV virion
R-HSA-175474, Assembly Of The HIV Virion
R-HSA-175567, Integration of viral DNA into host genomic DNA
R-HSA-177539, Autointegration results in viral DNA circles
R-HSA-180689, APOBEC3G mediated resistance to HIV-1 infection
R-HSA-180897, Vpr-mediated induction of apoptosis by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization
R-HSA-180910, Vpr-mediated nuclear import of PICs

Family and domain databases

HAMAPiMF_04080, HIV_VPR, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000012, RetroV_VpR/X
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00522, VPR, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00444, HIVVPRVPX

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

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ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiVPR_HV1H2
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P69726
Secondary accession number(s): P05926, Q85577
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 29, 2005
Last sequence update: February 4, 2015
Last modified: December 2, 2020
This is version 102 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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