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Entry version 165 (16 Oct 2019)
Sequence version 1 (13 Aug 1987)
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Protein

Tubulin alpha-4A chain

Gene

TUBA4A

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Miscellaneous

This tubulin does not have a C-terminal tyrosine.

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi142 – 148GTPSequence analysis7

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

LigandGTP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-HSA-114608 Platelet degranulation
R-HSA-1445148 Translocation of SLC2A4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane
R-HSA-190840 Microtubule-dependent trafficking of connexons from Golgi to the plasma membrane
R-HSA-190861 Gap junction assembly
R-HSA-2132295 MHC class II antigen presentation
R-HSA-2467813 Separation of Sister Chromatids
R-HSA-2500257 Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion
R-HSA-2565942 Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition
R-HSA-3371497 HSP90 chaperone cycle for steroid hormone receptors (SHR)
R-HSA-380259 Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes
R-HSA-380270 Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes
R-HSA-380284 Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization from the centrosome
R-HSA-380320 Recruitment of NuMA to mitotic centrosomes
R-HSA-389957 Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC
R-HSA-389960 Formation of tubulin folding intermediates by CCT/TriC
R-HSA-389977 Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway
R-HSA-437239 Recycling pathway of L1
R-HSA-5610787 Hedgehog 'off' state
R-HSA-5617833 Cilium Assembly
R-HSA-5620912 Anchoring of the basal body to the plasma membrane
R-HSA-5620924 Intraflagellar transport
R-HSA-5626467 RHO GTPases activate IQGAPs
R-HSA-5663220 RHO GTPases Activate Formins
R-HSA-6807878 COPI-mediated anterograde transport
R-HSA-6811434 COPI-dependent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic
R-HSA-6811436 COPI-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic
R-HSA-68877 Mitotic Prometaphase
R-HSA-8852276 The role of GTSE1 in G2/M progression after G2 checkpoint
R-HSA-8854518 AURKA Activation by TPX2
R-HSA-8955332 Carboxyterminal post-translational modifications of tubulin
R-HSA-9609736 Assembly and cell surface presentation of NMDA receptors
R-HSA-9619483 Activation of AMPK downstream of NMDARs
R-HSA-983189 Kinesins

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

More...
SIGNORi
P68366

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Tubulin alpha-4A chain
Alternative name(s):
Alpha-tubulin 1
Testis-specific alpha-tubulin
Tubulin H2-alpha
Tubulin alpha-1 chain
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:TUBA4A
Synonyms:TUBA1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

More...
HGNCi
HGNC:12407 TUBA4A

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

More...
MIMi
191110 gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

More...
neXtProti
NX_P68366

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Microtubule

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 22, with or without frontotemporal dementia (ALS22)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper motor neurons in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord, resulting in fatal paralysis. Sensory abnormalities are absent. The pathologic hallmarks of the disease include pallor of the corticospinal tract due to loss of motor neurons, presence of ubiquitin-positive inclusions within surviving motor neurons, and deposition of pathologic aggregates. The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is likely to be multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors. The disease is inherited in 5-10% of the cases. Patients with ALS22 may develop frontotemporal dementia.
Related information in OMIM
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_072714145T → P in ALS22. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs730880029EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_072715215R → C in ALS22; displays significantly different distribution in terms of incorporation into microtubules. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs730880028EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_072716320R → C in ALS22; displays significantly lower levels of dimer assembly. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs730880025EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_072717320R → H in ALS22; displays significantly lower levels of dimer assembly. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs730880026EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_072718383A → T in ALS22; displays significantly different distribution in terms of incorporation into microtubules; destabilizes the microtubule network. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs368743618EnsemblClinVar.1

Keywords - Diseasei

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Neurodegeneration

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

More...
DisGeNETi
7277

MalaCards human disease database

More...
MalaCardsi
TUBA4A
MIMi616208 phenotype

Open Targets

More...
OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000127824

The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

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PharmGKBi
PA162407391

Miscellaneous databases

Pharos NIH Druggable Genome Knowledgebase

More...
Pharosi
P68366

Chemistry databases

ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

More...
ChEMBLi
CHEMBL2095182

Drug and drug target database

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DrugBanki
DB06772 Cabazitaxel
DB05147 CYT997
DB01873 Epothilone D
DB03010 Patupilone
DB12695 Phenethyl Isothiocyanate
DB01179 Podofilox
DB00541 Vincristine

DrugCentral

More...
DrugCentrali
P68366

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

More...
BioMutai
TUBA4A

Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

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DMDMi
55977476

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00000481061 – 448Tubulin alpha-4A chainAdd BLAST448

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei40N6-acetyllysine1 Publication1
Modified residuei48PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei83Nitrated tyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei432PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei439PhosphoserineBy similarity1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group (PubMed:26875866). Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold (PubMed:26875866).1 Publication
Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella). Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of monoglycylation is still unclear (Probable).1 Publication
Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 is located inside the microtubule lumen. This modification has been correlated with increased microtubule stability, intracellular transport and ciliary assembly.1 Publication
Methylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 is found in mitotic microtubules and is required for normal mitosis and cytokinesis contributing to genomic stability.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Methylation, Nitration, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

The CPTAC Assay portal

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CPTACi
CPTAC-597
CPTAC-598

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

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EPDi
P68366

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

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jPOSTi
P68366

MassIVE - Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment

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MassIVEi
P68366

MaxQB - The MaxQuant DataBase

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MaxQBi
P68366

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

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PaxDbi
P68366

PeptideAtlas

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PeptideAtlasi
P68366

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

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PRIDEi
P68366

ProteomicsDB: a multi-organism proteome resource

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ProteomicsDBi
2093
57534 [P68366-1]

2D gel databases

DOSAC-COBS 2D-PAGE database

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DOSAC-COBS-2DPAGEi
P68366

USC-OGP 2-DE database

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OGPi
P05215

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

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iPTMneti
P68366

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

More...
PhosphoSitePlusi
P68366

SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events

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SwissPalmi
P68366

Miscellaneous databases

CutDB - Proteolytic event database

More...
PMAP-CutDBi
P68366

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

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Bgeei
ENSG00000127824 Expressed in 235 organ(s), highest expression level in mouth mucosa

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

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ExpressionAtlasi
P68366 baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

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Genevisiblei
P68366 HS

Organism-specific databases

Human Protein Atlas

More...
HPAi
CAB004621
CAB005887
HPA039247
HPA043684
HPA063394

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

Interacts with CFAP157 (By similarity).

By similarity

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section%27">Interaction</a> section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

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BioGridi
113128, 318 interactors

CORUM comprehensive resource of mammalian protein complexes

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CORUMi
P68366

Protein interaction database and analysis system

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IntActi
P68366, 184 interactors

Molecular INTeraction database

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MINTi
P68366

STRING: functional protein association networks

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STRINGi
9606.ENSP00000248437

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
P68366

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the tubulin family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

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eggNOGi
KOG1376 Eukaryota
COG5023 LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

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GeneTreei
ENSGT00950000183165

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

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HOGENOMi
HOG000165711

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

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InParanoidi
P68366

KEGG Orthology (KO)

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KOi
K07374

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
HLHIGQA

Database of Orthologous Groups

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OrthoDBi
514396at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

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PhylomeDBi
P68366

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

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TreeFami
TF300314

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

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Gene3Di
1.10.287.600, 1 hit
3.30.1330.20, 1 hit
3.40.50.1440, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR002452 Alpha_tubulin
IPR008280 Tub_FtsZ_C
IPR000217 Tubulin
IPR018316 Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom
IPR037103 Tubulin/FtsZ_C_sf
IPR036525 Tubulin/FtsZ_GTPase_sf
IPR023123 Tubulin_C
IPR017975 Tubulin_CS
IPR003008 Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase

The PANTHER Classification System

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PANTHERi
PTHR11588 PTHR11588, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

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Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00091 Tubulin, 1 hit
PF03953 Tubulin_C, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

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PRINTSi
PR01162 ALPHATUBULIN
PR01161 TUBULIN

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

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SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00864 Tubulin, 1 hit
SM00865 Tubulin_C, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

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SUPFAMi
SSF52490 SSF52490, 1 hit
SSF55307 SSF55307, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

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PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00227 TUBULIN, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 2 described isoforms and 5 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: P68366-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the <div> <p><b>What is the canonical sequence?</b><p><a href='/help/canonical_and_isoforms' target='_top'>More...</a></p>canonicali sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MRECISVHVG QAGVQMGNAC WELYCLEHGI QPDGQMPSDK TIGGGDDSFT
60 70 80 90 100
TFFCETGAGK HVPRAVFVDL EPTVIDEIRN GPYRQLFHPE QLITGKEDAA
110 120 130 140 150
NNYARGHYTI GKEIIDPVLD RIRKLSDQCT GLQGFLVFHS FGGGTGSGFT
160 170 180 190 200
SLLMERLSVD YGKKSKLEFS IYPAPQVSTA VVEPYNSILT THTTLEHSDC
210 220 230 240 250
AFMVDNEAIY DICRRNLDIE RPTYTNLNRL ISQIVSSITA SLRFDGALNV
260 270 280 290 300
DLTEFQTNLV PYPRIHFPLA TYAPVISAEK AYHEQLSVAE ITNACFEPAN
310 320 330 340 350
QMVKCDPRHG KYMACCLLYR GDVVPKDVNA AIAAIKTKRS IQFVDWCPTG
360 370 380 390 400
FKVGINYQPP TVVPGGDLAK VQRAVCMLSN TTAIAEAWAR LDHKFDLMYA
410 420 430 440
KRAFVHWYVG EGMEEGEFSE AREDMAALEK DYEEVGIDSY EDEDEGEE
Length:448
Mass (Da):49,924
Last modified:August 13, 1987 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iC00ED90A183FE8F2
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P68366-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-15: Missing.

Show »
Length:433
Mass (Da):48,329
Checksum:i0448FC0BE3F4872A
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 5 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
C9JEV8C9JEV8_HUMAN
Tubulin alpha chain
TUBA4A
153Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
C9JJQ8C9JJQ8_HUMAN
Tubulin alpha chain
TUBA4A
198Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
C9JQ00C9JQ00_HUMAN
Tubulin alpha chain
TUBA4A
180Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
C9JDS9C9JDS9_HUMAN
Tubulin alpha-4A chain
TUBA4A
156Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
C9JDL2C9JDL2_HUMAN
Tubulin alpha-4A chain
TUBA4A
119Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_072714145T → P in ALS22. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs730880029EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_072715215R → C in ALS22; displays significantly different distribution in terms of incorporation into microtubules. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs730880028EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_072716320R → C in ALS22; displays significantly lower levels of dimer assembly. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs730880025EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_072717320R → H in ALS22; displays significantly lower levels of dimer assembly. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs730880026EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_072718383A → T in ALS22; displays significantly different distribution in terms of incorporation into microtubules; destabilizes the microtubule network. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs368743618EnsemblClinVar.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_0551941 – 15Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST15

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
X06956 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA30026.1
BT006731 mRNA Translation: AAP35377.1
AK054731 mRNA Translation: BAG51418.1
AK299958 mRNA Translation: BAH13182.1
AY895018 Genomic DNA Translation: AAW65371.1
AC068946 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AC114803 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471063 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW70718.1
CH471063 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW70719.1
BC009238 mRNA Translation: AAH09238.1

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

More...
CCDSi
CCDS2438.1 [P68366-1]
CCDS63131.1 [P68366-2]

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A25873

NCBI Reference Sequences

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RefSeqi
NP_001265481.1, NM_001278552.1 [P68366-2]
NP_005991.1, NM_006000.2 [P68366-1]

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENST00000248437; ENSP00000248437; ENSG00000127824 [P68366-1]
ENST00000392088; ENSP00000375938; ENSG00000127824 [P68366-2]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

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GeneIDi
7277

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

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KEGGi
hsa:7277

UCSC genome browser

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UCSCi
uc002vkt.3 human [P68366-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross_references_section">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

NIEHS-SNPs
Wikipedia

Tubulin entry

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X06956 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA30026.1
BT006731 mRNA Translation: AAP35377.1
AK054731 mRNA Translation: BAG51418.1
AK299958 mRNA Translation: BAH13182.1
AY895018 Genomic DNA Translation: AAW65371.1
AC068946 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AC114803 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471063 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW70718.1
CH471063 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW70719.1
BC009238 mRNA Translation: AAH09238.1
CCDSiCCDS2438.1 [P68366-1]
CCDS63131.1 [P68366-2]
PIRiA25873
RefSeqiNP_001265481.1, NM_001278552.1 [P68366-2]
NP_005991.1, NM_006000.2 [P68366-1]

3D structure databases

SMRiP68366
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi113128, 318 interactors
CORUMiP68366
IntActiP68366, 184 interactors
MINTiP68366
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000248437

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2095182
DrugBankiDB06772 Cabazitaxel
DB05147 CYT997
DB01873 Epothilone D
DB03010 Patupilone
DB12695 Phenethyl Isothiocyanate
DB01179 Podofilox
DB00541 Vincristine
DrugCentraliP68366

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP68366
PhosphoSitePlusiP68366
SwissPalmiP68366

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiTUBA4A
DMDMi55977476

2D gel databases

DOSAC-COBS-2DPAGEiP68366
OGPiP05215

Proteomic databases

CPTACiCPTAC-597
CPTAC-598
EPDiP68366
jPOSTiP68366
MassIVEiP68366
MaxQBiP68366
PaxDbiP68366
PeptideAtlasiP68366
PRIDEiP68366
ProteomicsDBi2093
57534 [P68366-1]

Protocols and materials databases

The DNASU plasmid repository

More...
DNASUi
7277

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000248437; ENSP00000248437; ENSG00000127824 [P68366-1]
ENST00000392088; ENSP00000375938; ENSG00000127824 [P68366-2]
GeneIDi7277
KEGGihsa:7277
UCSCiuc002vkt.3 human [P68366-1]

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
7277
DisGeNETi7277

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

More...
GeneCardsi
TUBA4A
HGNCiHGNC:12407 TUBA4A
HPAiCAB004621
CAB005887
HPA039247
HPA043684
HPA063394
MalaCardsiTUBA4A
MIMi191110 gene
616208 phenotype
neXtProtiNX_P68366
OpenTargetsiENSG00000127824
PharmGKBiPA162407391

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1376 Eukaryota
COG5023 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00950000183165
HOGENOMiHOG000165711
InParanoidiP68366
KOiK07374
OMAiHLHIGQA
OrthoDBi514396at2759
PhylomeDBiP68366
TreeFamiTF300314

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-114608 Platelet degranulation
R-HSA-1445148 Translocation of SLC2A4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane
R-HSA-190840 Microtubule-dependent trafficking of connexons from Golgi to the plasma membrane
R-HSA-190861 Gap junction assembly
R-HSA-2132295 MHC class II antigen presentation
R-HSA-2467813 Separation of Sister Chromatids
R-HSA-2500257 Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion
R-HSA-2565942 Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition
R-HSA-3371497 HSP90 chaperone cycle for steroid hormone receptors (SHR)
R-HSA-380259 Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes
R-HSA-380270 Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes
R-HSA-380284 Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization from the centrosome
R-HSA-380320 Recruitment of NuMA to mitotic centrosomes
R-HSA-389957 Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC
R-HSA-389960 Formation of tubulin folding intermediates by CCT/TriC
R-HSA-389977 Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway
R-HSA-437239 Recycling pathway of L1
R-HSA-5610787 Hedgehog 'off' state
R-HSA-5617833 Cilium Assembly
R-HSA-5620912 Anchoring of the basal body to the plasma membrane
R-HSA-5620924 Intraflagellar transport
R-HSA-5626467 RHO GTPases activate IQGAPs
R-HSA-5663220 RHO GTPases Activate Formins
R-HSA-6807878 COPI-mediated anterograde transport
R-HSA-6811434 COPI-dependent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic
R-HSA-6811436 COPI-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic
R-HSA-68877 Mitotic Prometaphase
R-HSA-8852276 The role of GTSE1 in G2/M progression after G2 checkpoint
R-HSA-8854518 AURKA Activation by TPX2
R-HSA-8955332 Carboxyterminal post-translational modifications of tubulin
R-HSA-9609736 Assembly and cell surface presentation of NMDA receptors
R-HSA-9619483 Activation of AMPK downstream of NMDARs
R-HSA-983189 Kinesins
SIGNORiP68366

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

More...
ChiTaRSi
TUBA4A human

The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

More...
GeneWikii
TUBA4A

Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

More...
GenomeRNAii
7277
PharosiP68366
PMAP-CutDBiP68366

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P68366

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

More...
SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000127824 Expressed in 235 organ(s), highest expression level in mouth mucosa
ExpressionAtlasiP68366 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP68366 HS

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.287.600, 1 hit
3.30.1330.20, 1 hit
3.40.50.1440, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002452 Alpha_tubulin
IPR008280 Tub_FtsZ_C
IPR000217 Tubulin
IPR018316 Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom
IPR037103 Tubulin/FtsZ_C_sf
IPR036525 Tubulin/FtsZ_GTPase_sf
IPR023123 Tubulin_C
IPR017975 Tubulin_CS
IPR003008 Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase
PANTHERiPTHR11588 PTHR11588, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00091 Tubulin, 1 hit
PF03953 Tubulin_C, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01162 ALPHATUBULIN
PR01161 TUBULIN
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00864 Tubulin, 1 hit
SM00865 Tubulin_C, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF52490 SSF52490, 1 hit
SSF55307 SSF55307, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00227 TUBULIN, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiTBA4A_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P68366
Secondary accession number(s): A8MUB1, B3KNQ6, P05215
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 13, 1987
Last sequence update: August 13, 1987
Last modified: October 16, 2019
This is version 165 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 2
    Human chromosome 2: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
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